Black Organizing in Pre-Civil War Illinois: Creating Community, Demanding Justice

Bridges, Roger D. “Antebellum Struggle for Citizenship.” Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society 108, no. 3-4 (Fall-Winter 2015): 296–321.

Cha-Jua, Sundiata Keita. America’s First Black Town: Brooklyn, Illinois, 1830-1915. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2000.

Dexter, Darrel. Bondage in Egypt: Slavery in Southern Illlinois. Cape Girardeau, MO: Center for Regional History Southeast Missouri State University, 2011.

Dolinar, Brian, ed. The Negro in Illinois: The WPA Papers. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2013.

Foreman, P. Gabrielle, Jim Casey, and Sarah Lynn Patterson, eds. The Colored Conventions Movement: Black Organizing in the Nineteenth Century. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2021.

Foy, Charles R. and Michael I. Bradley. “The African American Community in Brushy Fork, Illinois, 1818-1861.” Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society 112, no. 2 (Summer 2019): 129-162. 

Gertz, Elmer. “The Black Laws of Illinois.” Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society  56 no. 3 Emancipation Centennial Issue (Autumn, 1963): 454-473.

Gliozzo, Charles A. “John Jones: A Study of a Black Chicagoan.” Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society 80, no. 3 (Autumn 1987): 177-188.

Harbour, Jennifer R. Organizing Freedom: Black Emancipation Activism in the Civil War Midwest. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 2020.

Harbour, Jennifer R. “‘I Earn By My Own Labor From Day To Day’: African American Women’s Activism in the Wartime Midwest.” Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society 108, no. 3-4 (Fall-Winter 2015): 347–373.

Harris, Norman Dwight. The History of Negro Servitude in Illinois and of the Slavery Agitation in that State, 1719-1864. Chicago: A.C. McClurg & Co., 1904. 

Harrison, Victoria L. Fight Like a Tiger: Conway Barbour and the Challenges of the Black Middle Class in Nineteenth-Century America. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press, 2018.

Harrison, Victoria L. “We Are Here Assembled: Illinois Colored Conventions, 1853-1873.” Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society 108, no. 3-4 (Fall-Winter 2015): 322–346. 

Heerman, M. Scott. The Alechemy of Slavery: Human Bondage and Emancipation in the Illinois Country, 1730-1865. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2018.

Jones, Martha S. All Bound Up Together: The Woman Question in African American Public Culture, 1830-1900. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 2007.

Richard Junger, “‘God and Man Helped Those Who Helped Themselves’: John and Mary Jones and the Culture of African American Self-Sufficiency in Mid-Nineteenth-Century Chicago.Journal of Illinois History 11, no. 2 (Summer 2008): 111-132.

Junger, Richard. “‘Thinking Men and Women, Who Desire to Improve Our Condition’: Henry O. Wagoner, Civil Rights, and Black Economic Opportunity in Frontier Chicago and Denver, 1846-1887.” In Voices from within the Veil: African Americans and the Experience of Democracy, edited by William H. Alexander, Cassandra L. Newby-Alexander, and Charles H. Ford, 140-169. Newcastle upon Tyne, Eng.: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2008.  

LaRoche, Cheryl Janifer. Free Black Communities and the Underground Railroad : the Geography of Resistance. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2014.

Masur, Kate. Until Justice Be Done: America’s First Civil Rights Movement, from the Revolution to Reconstruction. New York: W. W. Norton, 2021.

McCaul, Robert. The Black Struggle for Public Schooling in Nineteenth-Century Illinois. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1987.

Muelder, Hermann R. A Hero Home From the War: Among the Black Citizens of Galesburg, Illinois 1860-1880. Galesburg, IL: Knox College Library, 1987.

Rael, Patrick. Black Identity and Black Protest in the Antebellum North. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2002.

Reed, Christopher Robert. Black Chicago’s First Century: Volume 1, 1833-1900. Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 2005.

Reed, Christopher Robert. “The Early African American Settlement of Chicago, 1833-1870.” Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society 108, no. 3-4 (Fall-Winter 2015): 211–265.

Robertson, Stacey M. Hearts Beating for Liberty: Women Abolitionists in the Old Northwest. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 2010.

 

Digital Resources:

Chicago History Museum, “Concert is Power: Chicago’s First Free Black Generation, Part 1”

Chicago History Museum, “Concert is Power: Chicago’s First Free Black Generation, Part 2”