Before Garvey! Henry McNeal Turner and the Fight for Reparations, Emigration and Black Rights

In the Classroom

​These teaching guides can be taught in conjunction with Andre E. Johnson’s article “Further Silence upon Our Part Would be an Outrage: Bishop Henry McNeal Turner and the Colored Conventions Movement,” which appears in the volume The Colored Conventions Movement: Black Organizing in the Nineteenth Century (2021), edited by P. Gabrielle Foreman, Jim Casey, and Sarah Lynn Paterson, published by the  University of North Carolina Press. For more information on the contents of the volume and where to find it, visit


K-12 Teaching Guide: Prepared by Denise G. Burgher (Curriculum Chair and English PhD candidate, Univ. of Delaware) and datejie green (Researcher and Consultant). Reviewed by Janel Moore Almond (Colored Conventions Project Teaching Advisory Board) and Takiya Jackson (Undergraduate Researcher, Penn State).

College/AP Classes Teaching Guide: Prepared by Samantha de Vera (History PhD candidate at UC San Diego) in collaboration with P. Gabrielle Foreman (CBDR Co-director, Penn State). Reviewed by Janel Moore Almond.

Curriculum Proofreading: Aimee Gee (librarian, Univ. of Delaware).

Curriculum Layout Design and Review: Sam De Vera (PhD candidate, UC San Diego), Michelle Byrnes (undergraduate, Penn State), Lauren Earl (MLIS student, Syracuse University) and Lauren Cooper (CBDR librarian, Penn State).