Curators: Denise Burgher, Ph.D. student in English and Committee Chair, the Colored Conventions Project, and Dr. Andre E. Johnson, Assistant Professor of Communication Studies at the University of Memphis. Created for Dr. P. Gabrielle Foreman’s History/English 641 class, Spring 2016.

Edited by Dr. P. Gabrielle Foreman and Sarah Patterson.

Acknowledgments: Samantha de Vera, Simone Austin, Kelli Coles, and Caleb Trotter for further edits, visualization contributions, and technical assistance.

Special thanks to Gale, a Cengage Company, and Accessible Archives Inc.® for granting permission for the use of the materials from 19th Century U.S. Newspaper and African American Newspapers: The 19th Century.

The Colored Conventions Project works with teaching partners and their students to create digital content on the rich history of Black political organizing in the nineteenth century. Visit our Teaching Partners page to browse the curriculum and find information on becoming a teaching partner.

Citation: Burgher, Denise and Andre E. Johnson. “Before Garvey! Henry McNeal Turner and the Fight for Reparations, Emigration and Black Rights.” Colored Conventions Project. 2016.


Previous Citation: Burgher, Denise and Andre E.Johnson. “Bishop Henry McNeal Turner: Visionary, Preacher, Prophet.” Omeka RSS. 2016.