- A Brief Introduction to the Movement
- To Stay or To Go?: The National Emigration Convention of 1854
- The 1853 Manual Labor College Initiative
- Bishop Henry McNeal Turner
- Mobility, Migration, and the 1855 Philadelphia National Convention
- Henry Highland Garnet's "Address"
- What Did They Eat? Where Did They Stay?
- Black Wealth and the 1843 Convention
- Black Women's Economic Power
- The First National Convention
- The "Conventions" of the Conventions: Political Rituals
- A National Press? The 1847 National Convention and the North Star
- Equality Before the Law: California Black Convention Activism, 1855-65
- Conflict on the Ohio: The 1858 Convention in Cincinnati
- The Post-Bellum Conventions Movement and the Emigration Debate
- Conventions by City
- National Conventions
- Women Delegates
- Women in the Conventions
- Convention Hosts by Denomination
- Conventions by Level
- Clusters of Conventions
- Colored Conventions in Canada
- Women in the Conventions | March 8, 2017
- Douglass Day
- About Us
- Contact Us
Bishop Turner was committed to the idea and reality of Black dignity. A living witness to the vagaries of slavery, the unmitigated failures of Reconstruction, and the intransigence of violent white racism, Turner knew that African Americans would not be allowed to become full human beings in America. Turner dreamed of, planned for and worked toward African emigration. Indeed, African emigration was the avowed focus of the popularly known, Turner’s Convention, which he called and presided over. Mobility, in the African American community, has been strongly tied to freedom. Enslavement was immobility or forced mobility writ large. Freedom literally means you could choose to respond to the environment: stay or leave. The compelling needs to migrate inaugurated the first Colored Convention and arguably, therefore, the entire Colored Conventions movement. This exhibit also traces the ways that the idea of emigration and mobility begin and are invoked repeatedly throughout the Colored Conventions Movement.
The very first Colored Convention was organized by AME founder and first bishop, Richard Allen, who called local and national leaders and community members together to discuss the feasibility of emigration to Canada. African Americans were facing constricting laws around social and economic opportunities for African Americans in the form of Black Codes, social and cultural practices combined with the ongoing explosion of slavery across the Unites States. Delegates—soberly surveyed the present and looking forward—decided that they had to find an alternative to life in the United States. Going West took a very different appeal.
Use the timeline below to read about the ways that the idea of emigration and mobility began and were invoked repeatedly throughout the Colored Conventions movement.