How does this exhibit highlight the connections between the Colored Conventions movement and Black women’s role in the establishment of educational institutions open to African Americans? How do the curators privilege the lives and work of Black women who were active in the movement for Black education but not necessarily—or only minimally—acknowledged in Colored Conventions movement records?1

Consider the biographies of Prior Foster, Mary Leary Langston, Caroline Richards Morel, Susan Paul Smith, and Clorice Esteve Reason—activist Black women whose names do not appear in convention minutes.

1 In many minutes, Black women participants are often only referred to as “ladies.” For example, the minutes of the 1844 New York State Convention notes the presence of “One hundred ladies.” Similarly, the 1855 California State Convention only mentions the presence of Mrs. Alfred J. White and “the ladies of Sacramento,” even though they proposed a resolution as a group.

As Baumgartner writes, by the latter half of the nineteenth century, Black leaders increasingly encouraged and emphasized Black women’s community activism over domesticity.2 Indeed, the experience of teacher and activist Barbara Ann Steward affirms this, but while strongly encouraged by her parents, Steward was denied the opportunity to participate in a convention in Troy, New York, in 1855.3 

How does the exhibit speak to the shift toward affirming Black women’s activism and the challenges Black women faced when seeking to carve a space for themselves in activist circles? 

2 Kabria Baumgartner. “Gender Politics and the Manual Labor College Initiative at National Colored Conventions in Antebellum America,” The Colored Conventions Movement: Black Organizing in the Nineteenth Century, eds. P. Gabrielle Foreman, Jim Casey, and Sarah Lynn Paterson (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2021), 230.

3 During the convention, ‘The roll was then read. The name Miss Barbary[sic] Anna Stewart[sic] was stricken out from the roll, several gentlemen objecting to it on the ground that this is not a Woman’s Rights Convention.’ Colored Men’s State Convention of New York (1855 : Troy, NY), “Colored Men’s State Convention of New York, Troy, September 4, 1855.,” Colored Conventions Project Digital Records, accessed April 10, 2021,

In its biographies page, this exhibit provides a visualization mapping the generational differences among Black activists who shared a common cause for education.

What are the possible uses of this visualization? What claims and arguments can we advance using the information this visualization provides?

As this exhibit shows, both Black and white newspapers covered the 1853 Colored Convention (and most conventions). The white press at times ridiculed and denigrated Black Americans’ political organizing efforts.

What other insights can we glean by looking at Black and white news reports side by side? Which of the delegates’ discussions did Black and white presses focus on and why?

This exhibit offers brief biographies of four educational institutions: the Oneida Institute of New York, Woodstock Manual Labor Institute, Albany Manual Labor Academy, and Albany Enterprise Academy.

What are the activist traditions that bind these four seemingly disparate institutions?

Write a paragraph to a page proposal for a visualization or other type of content that could advance the argument of this exhibit. Explain how and why you made this decision. 

If your class were to create/hold a convention today, what issues would be its focus? Write a convention call that outlines the convention’s objectives, urgent issues at hand, and the active measures delegates and attendees would need to consider, discuss, and plan. Write a comprehensive call and brief version of it (see examples in separate tabs above, EXAMPLE: Full Convention Call and EXAMPLE: Brief Convention Call). Prepare to address the following questions:

1) How would your convention be organized? 

2) What organizations and which leaders would be invited? Who are the non-famous people who would need to be there and from what communities/entities would they draw? Consider how an unprecedented number of Black women participated in the 1854 Emigration Convention and how their presence informed the issues that were discussed and the resolutions that were passed. 

3) What objectives do you think most attendees would agree on? 

4) What major differences in approaches do you think delegates might have? 

5) How do you think it would be covered by the press? 

From the Colored Conventions Project’s Digital Records – view


Fellow Citizens, – We issue this call, to invite you to attend a State Convention , to be held in the city of Albany on Tuesday, the 18th day of August next.

The primary object we have in inviting you to assemble is, to take in to consideration the political condition of our people in this State, and to adopt such measures as can be simultaneously carried out by our brethren, in every section of the State, to obtain a relief from those political disabilities under which we labor.

The principal legal disability which affects us is, our deprivation of the free exercise, in common with other men, of the elective franchise. A free suffrage is the basis of a free government, the safe-guard of a free people, the strength of the strong, the defence of the weak, a powerful auxiliary to respectability, wealth and usefulness; – and just in proportion as men are deprived of this, they are shorn of their strength, and are subject to poverty, disgrace, and abuse.

We are convinced, fellow citizens, that not only our political, but our depressed condition in all other respects in the State, owes itself, not in the least sense, to the fact that we are politically weak, not possessing the unrestricted use of the elective franchise. The body politic see in us, therefore, no favors to court, and nothing to fear. It is to them a matter of no concern, what may be the abuses we suffer, or how unhappy our condition.

You are aware, that while other citizens have a free and unrestricted use of the elective franchise, a property qualification is required on our part, in order for us to exercise this right, so important to a free people, and without which, a man cannot be considered, in a democratic sense, a freeman. This invidious requisition to the exercise of a birth-right privilege, weakens our standing as citizens of the State, and subjects us to all consequent inconveniences. It also degrades our population, because it virtually lowers us in the scale of humanity, and reflects disparagingly upon our character. To seek a removal of this radical evil, is the object of calling you together in convention .

There has been no time so favorable for us to meet for the above object, as the present season. There is evidently a redeeming spirit abroad in our State – an increasing disposition to stand by, and defend the weak against the strong, as the noble acts of the Legislature regarding our protection as citizens, clearly indicate. Ought we not, then, to avail ourselves of this favorable indication, and come together to take some decisive measures to lay before the next Legislature our grievances, with a view to produce further action on their part, for our political disenthralment?

To facilitate the business of the convention , it will be necessary that statements setting forth the legal and other disabilities of our people in different parts of the state, be presented at the Convention . To further this object, we invite all who expect to be present, to collect such statements, and also statistical accounts of the property, real and personal, public buildings, with their value, &c., owned by our people, and the condition of the people in morals, as compared with former times.

We therefore urge upon colored men in all sections of the State – men in all circumstances – if you possess self-respect – if you love liberty – if you appreciate your own rights – if you wish for political and moral elevation – if you have any interest in the prosperity of our people – if you have any regard for the welfare of your children – for the welfare of the State and of the Nation, to assemble at Albany on the 18th of August next.

We call upon the farmer to leave for a while his harvesting, and repair to the assemblage of his brethren. Let the mechanic leave his workshop, to share the toils of a general council. Let the laborer and the workingman be seen crowding the avenues that lead to the place of assemblage. Let every portion of our great and growing State, where lives a single object of oppression, be represented. We call upon the people in every city, town and village to represent themselves in that Convention . Let the aged and the youth – all – all – be found at the above place, on that day. Come up, fellow citizens, from Suffolk to Erie, from Clinton to Steuben, and let us engage together in a common interest.


NEW YORK CITY – Chas. B. Ray, Theo. S. Wright, John J. Zaille, Chas. L. Reason, Timothy Seaman, Wm. P. Johnson, Philip A. Bell, Henry Stoughtenburgh, D. Elston, Thomas Downing, Thos. S. Sidney, Frederick Olney, P.H. Reason, Z.S. Barbary, T. Van Rensalaer, Pres. of the Long Island Convention .

BROOKLYN – Augustus Washington.

JAMAICA – S.V. Berry, Wm. Ranty.

FLUSHING – Aaron Wood, Rev. Mr. Moore.

KINGSTON – Wm. Hansbrouck,

ALBANY – Rev. J.T. Raymond. R. Thompson, Jr.

TROY – W. Rich, Henry H. Garnett, A. Theuay, Jacob Brown, Wm. S. Baltimore, Geo. B. Morton, Marshall Jones.

GENEVA – Rev. John Niles, J.W. Duffin.

ROCHESTER – Rev. Thomas James, W.L. Brown.

BATH – Rev. John Tappan.


The committee take the liberty to appoint the following persons, as a committee of correspondence, and to adopt such measures in their own city and town, as will further the object of the convention . If they are not willing to serve, they will please address a note to the chairman of the committee, (post paid none other will be taken from the office) to that effect. If no reply is made we shall regard it as accepting the appointment, and also as consenting to have their names attached to the call for the convention . We shall wait a few weeks for a reply,

NEWBURGH – C. Payne, I. Allen, J. Ray, T. Kendall.

POUGHKEEPSIE – J. Gray, M. Francis, U. Boston, H. Johnson.

KINGSTON – T. Harley, W. Hasbrouck.


HUDSON – W. Van Alstine.

ALBANY – Rev. J.T. Raymond, R. Thompson, Mr. Pogue, Top & Van Vrankin, C. Morton.

TROY – Wm. Rich, A. Theuay, G. Baltimore.

WEST TROY – Wm. Stewart, Wm. King.

SCHENACTADY – R.P.G. Wright, Thomas Jackson, F. Thompson, John Wendall, Mr. Simpson, Mr. Dana.

UTICA – G.L. Brown, James Fountain, B.S. Anderson, Peter Freeman, R. Paul.

WHITSBOROUGH – J.W. Logan, E.P. Rogers, J.M. Brickers.

LITTLE FALLS – Wm. Jackson.

NEW HARTFORD – R. Wells, Mr. Brewster.

SYRACUSE – Rev. Mr. Chester, P. Jackson, Wm. Jenkins, A. Dunbar.

OSWEGO – T.E. Grant, D. Pease.

VOLNEY – Silas Slater, Mr. Slater.

GENEVA – J.W. Duffin, J. Bland, A. Freeman, S. Condall.

CANANDAIGUA – D.H. Ray, R. Valintine.


ITHACA – H. Jackson.

BATH – E.L. Platt, Rev. J. Tappan.

ELMYRA – Wm. Johnson.

ROCHESTER – A. Stewart, J. Brown, W.L. Brown, A. Williams, J.H. Bishop.

LEROY – O. Wood.

LOCKPORT – Wm. Brumley, Geo. Miller, W. Miles, J. Morgan, J. Robinson.,

BUFFALO – A.H. Francis, J.L. Lincheum, J. Garritt, J. Walker, P. Harris, H. Hawkins, B. Lincheum, Geo. Ware, Wm. Qualls.

SACKETTS HARBOR – Julias Ferrill.

FISHKILL – A. Adkins.


Convention of the Colored Inhabitants of the State of New York (1840 : Albany, NY), “A Call for a Convention of the Colored Inhabitants of the State of New York,” Colored Conventions Project Digital Records,

From the Colored Conventions Project’s Digital Records – view

scan of newspaper clipping

A report on the 1893 National Colored Convention held in Cincinnati, OH published in The Emporia Daily Gazette (November 29, 1893).


“Colored Convention. Bishop Turner of Atlanta Calls the Meeting to Order in Cincinnati.,” Colored Conventions Project Digital Records,


This teaching guide was created in spring 2021 by Samantha de Vera (History PhD candidate at UC San Diego) in collaboration with P. Gabrielle Foreman (CBDR Co-director, Penn State). Reviewed by Janel Moore Almond (Colored Conventions Project Teaching Advisory Board).


Suggested Readings

Baumgartner, Kabria. In Pursuit of Knowledge: Black Women and Educational Activism in Antebellum America. New York: NYU Press, 2019.

——. “Building the Future: White Women, Black Education, and Civic Inclusion in Antebellum Ohio.” Journal of the Early Republic 37, no. 1 (2017): 117-45.

Perkins, Linda M. ““Bound to Them by a Common Sorrow”: African American Women, Higher Education, and Collective Advancement.The Journal of African American History 100, no. 4 (2015): 721-47. 

Rhodes, Jane. Mary Ann Shadd Cary: The Black Press and Protest in the Nineteenth Century. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1999.

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