Credits

Created by Michael Dickinson, English 634, Spring 2013. Taught by Professor P. Gabrielle Foreman, University of Delaware.

Edited by Carolyne King, English 641, Spring 2016. Taught by Professor P. Gabrielle Foreman, University of Delaware

Edited and Revised by Samantha de Vera

References

  1. James A Handy. 1902. Scraps of African Methodist Episcopal History. (Documenting the American South. University Library, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, July 24, 2000. Link), 346-7;  Ancestry.com, Philadelphia, “James G. Bias,” Pennsylvania, Death Certificates Index, 1803-1915,” Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2011.
  2. While the Eclectic Medical College of Pennsylvania has come to be regarded as a fraudulent enterprise, it was once a reputable medical school. At the time Bias attended, the college was reputable. “Swindling,”Capitalism by Gaslight: The Shadow Economic of 19th-Century America, Library Company of Philadelphia, 2012. Link
  3. Martin R. Delany, The Condition, Elevation, Emigration, and Destiny of the Colored People of the United States, Susan Shell, et al eds., (Project Gutenberg 2012), chap. 6.; Charles H. Wesley, “Jonathan Davis and the Rise of Black Fraternal Organizations,” The Crisis 84, no. 3 (1977), 113.
  4. William Parker. The Freedman’s Story: In Two Parts. (Documenting the American South. University Library, The U of North Carolina at Chapel Hill), 295. Link
  5. William Parker. The Freedman’s Story: In Two Parts. (Documenting the American South. University Library, The U of North Carolina at Chapel Hill), 295. Link.
  6. Ibid.
  7. “Proceedings of the 1855 National Colored Convention,” (Salem: National Standard, 1856), 8, 27; “Selections. The Colored Convention: Report of the Committee on Education,” The North Star (Jan 21, 1848), Assessable Archives.
  8. Joseph Cox, Great Black Men of Masonry, (Lincoln: iUniverse, Inc., 2002), 49; Handy, “Scraps of African Methodist Episcopal History,”346; Martha S. Jones, All Bound Up Together: The Woman Question in African American Public Culture (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2007), 75-7.
  9. Daniel R. Biddle and Murray Dubin, Tasting Freedom: Octavius Catto and the Battle for Equality in Civil War America (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2010), 200; Wesley, “Jonathan Davis and the Rise of Black Fraternal Organizations,” 116.
  10. Delany, The Condition, Elevation, Emigration, and Destiny of the Colored People of the United States, ch. 6; Kelly Miller, A Review of Hoffman’s Race Traits and Tendencies of the American Negro The American Negro Academy, Susan Shell, et al eds.,(Project Gutenberg 2010), 21-2; W.E.B. DuBois, Philadelphia Negro(New York: Cosimo, Inc., 2010), 422. 
  11. Biddle and Dubin, Tasting Freedom, 88, 93. 
  12. Jones, All Bound Up Together, 75-7; “Great Anti-Colonization Meeting” The North Star (April 29, 1852), Accessible Archives; Louis R. Mehlinger, “The Attitude of the Free Negro Toward African Colonization,”Journal of Negro History 1, no. 1 (1916), 180-1.