The Fight for Black Mobility: Traveling to Mid-century Conventions

Mary Ann Shadd Cary

black and white portrait of Shadd Cary

Mary Ann Shadd Cary (1823-1893), Courtesy of Library and Archives Canada / C-029977.

Although Mary Ann Camberton Shadd Cary was not included in the minutes of the 1855 Philadelphia Convention, she was a dynamic and forceful presence during those few days in October. Her name appears in the minutes of the 1855 Convention only as a delegate from Canada, but the coverage in both Frederick Douglass’s Paper and her own Provincial Freeman tells otherwise. Before Shadd could be admitted as a delegate to the convention—join the ranks of the many men familiar to her from her upbringing in the Philadelphia-area network of Black abolitionists—the assembly debated whether to allow her to sit as a delegate. Her opponents included other well-known delegates as Isaiah C. Wears. The debate was covered in Frederick Douglass’s Paper on November 9, 1855 by William J. Wilson under his pseudonym, Ethiop. “We may differ with her on the subject of emigration,” he wrote, but “she is a superior woman; and it is useless to deny it…however much we may differ with her on the subject of emigration.” Whatever the popular opinions may have considered about Shadd before she became a delegate, she promptly proceeded to give, in Ethiop’s admiring words, “one of the speeches of the Convention.” Even after the ten minutes given to other delegates, she was voted another ten minutes by an audience not particularly disposed to agreeing with her pro-emigrationist politics. As Ethiop summed it up, it was “the speech of the Convention.”

Although she had to fight just for a place at the 1855 Convention, she was born into a storied family tree of notable Shadds. Mary Ann was born as the first child of Abraham and Harriet Shadd on October 9 ,1823, a family that would eventually include 13 children that lived to adulthood. The Shadds were a prominent family in the Wilmington area, dating back to Mary’s grandmother, Amelia Cisco, who ran a tea parlor that existed at the center of social life for free Blacks and whites alike around the turn of the nineteenth century.

passenger list

This is a list of passengers arriving at Baltimore, Maryland, in December of 1840, and it includes Jacob R. Gibbs. Courtesy of

Mary Ann and the Shadds would move to West Chester, Pennsylvania, some time after so that the children could attend the Quaker school there. After finishing her formal education, Mary Ann Shadd became a teacher in Wilmington, West Chester, Trenton, and Morristown in New Jersey, and at the African Free School on Centre Street in New York City. Then, in 1851, Shadd decided to move to the province of Canada West after hearing a series of speeches about the opportunities there.

Mary Ann Shadd’s time in Canada West secured her place in history. She taught a school, became highly active in local politics, and became the first Black woman publisher and editor in North America by producing the Provincial Freeman from 1853 to 1859.  She married a man named Thomas Cary, a barber and businessman in Toronto, on January 3, 1856.

But the life story of Mary Ann Shadd cannot be told in isolation apart from the varied and rich historical contributions by more than a few of her siblings and her father Abraham’s key role in the Colored Conventions Movement. Abraham, born to Jeremiah Shadd and Amelia Cisco in 1801, would become the President of the 1833 Convention after having served as a delegate at each of the preceding national conventions.

The siblings of the Shadd family could make for an entire book-length study on their own. Brother Isaac Doras (1829-1896) followed his older sister Mary Ann to Chatham, Windsor and Toronto in Canada West. Isaac’s role in managing the daily business affairs of the Provincial Freeman would surely have been enough to secure his place in posterity.  Isaac’s house in Canada West served as the meeting place for the gatherings held in anticipation of the raid on Harper’s Ferry. Yet, after the Civil War Isaac was elected to the Mississippi State Legislature from 1871 to 1874. During that time, Isaac was also involved as a part owner of several experiments in Black-owned cotton plantations.

Several other siblings took after Mary Ann’s example as well. Amelia Cisco Shadd Williamson (1831-1897) followed her two older siblings to Canada West where she married a self-emancipated man named David T. Williamson who later contributed to the Provincial Freeman and ran a successful small business in Toronto.  Emeline Shadd (1835-1894) became one of the first women appointed the faculty of Education at Howard University. Much more work remains to be done to learn about the rest of the history of the illustrious Shadds, including siblings Elizabeth, Harriet, Joseph Lewis, Garrison, Sarah Matilda, Ada Theresa, and Gerrit S. Shadd.


Contributed by Jim Casey, graduate student at the University of Delaware. Researched for English 634, Spring 2013, taught by Professor P. Gabrielle Foreman.