- A Brief Introduction to the Movement
- To Stay or To Go?: The National Emigration Convention of 1854
- The 1853 Manual Labor College Initiative
- Bishop Henry McNeal Turner
- Mobility, Migration, and the 1855 Philadelphia National Convention
- Henry Highland Garnet's "Address"
- What Did They Eat? Where Did They Stay?
- Black Wealth and the 1843 Convention
- Black Women's Economic Power
- The First National Convention
- The "Conventions" of the Conventions: Political Rituals
- A National Press? The 1847 National Convention and the North Star
- Equality Before the Law: California Black Convention Activism, 1855-65
- Conflict on the Ohio: The 1858 Convention in Cincinnati
- The Post-Bellum Conventions Movement and the Emigration Debate
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Bakeries: Feeding Delegates and Fostering Charity in the Community
Click the names in the right-hand menu to learn more about the lives of bakers in Philadelphia in the 1830s.
Many African Americans moved to Philadelphia from slave-holding states as close as Delaware to states in the deep south. Former cooks and domestic workers capitalized on their culinary skills to get jobs in bakeries and restaurants. Still, African American bakery owners were mostly members of the Black elite. In spite of the privileges that come with being a member of such group, they, too, lived with the worry of being accused of being fugitives and under threats of anti-Black mob outbreaks, violence, and disenfranchisement.
For further reading on African-American food culture, click here.