[1] The idea of political theater in, especially, early nineteenth-century politics has been long establish. See W. Caleb McDaniel, “The Fourth and the first: Abolitionist holidays, respectability, and radical interracial Reform” AQ, March 2005, 129-151; Mark Weiner, Black Trials: Citizenship from the Beginnings of Slavery to the End of Caste (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2004); Michael Pierson, Free Hearts and Free Homes: Gender and Antislavery Politics (Chapel Hill: UNC Press, 2003); Martin Summers, Manliness and its Discontents; John Stauffer, The Black Hearts of Men: Radical Abolitionists and the Transformation of Race (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 2002) and Elizabeth Varon, We Mean to Be Counted. David Waldstreicher, In the Midst of Perpetual Fetes: The Making of American Nationalism, 1776 – 1820 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1997); Mary Ryan, Civic Wars: Democracy and Public Life in the American City during the Nineteenth Century (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997); Nancy Isenberg, Sex and Citizenship in Antebellum America (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1998; Glenn C. Altschuler and Stuart M. Blumin, Rude Republic: Americans and their Politics in the Nineteenth Century (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2001).

[2] “Minutes and proceedings of the Third annual Convention, for the Improvement of the Free People of Colour in these United States, :held by adjournments in the city of Philadelphia, from the 3d to the 13th of June inclusive, 1833.,” Philadelphia, PA,”, accessed April 6, 2016,