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Bibliography

Abbott, Martin. “Freedom's Cry: Negroes and Their Meetings in South Carolina, 1865-1869.” The Phylon Quarterly 20.3 (3rd Quarter 1959): 263-272. (Preview)

Adeleke, Tunde. UnAfrican Americans: Nineteenth-Century Black Nationalists and the Civilizing Mission. Lexington, Kentucky: University Press of Kentucky, 1998. (Preview)

Ali, Omar. In the Balance of Power: Independent Black Politics and Third-Party Movements in the United States. Athens: Ohio University Press, 2008. (Preview)

Alexander, Leslie M. African Or American?: Black Identity and Political Activism in New York City, 1784-1861. Urbana-Champaign: University of Illinois Press, 2008. (Preview

Angell, Stephen Ward. Bishop Henry McNeal Turner and the African-American Religion in the South. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1992. (Preview)

Aptheker, Herbert. “South Carolina Negro Conventions, 1865.” The Journal of Negro History 31.1 (1946): 91–97. (Preview)

Ball, Erica L. To Live an Antislavery Life: Personal Politics and the Antebellum Black Middle Class. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2012. (Preview)

Barnes, Kenneth C. The Journey of Hope: the Back-to-Africa Movement in Arkansas in the late 1800s.Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2004. (Preview)

Barr, Alwyn. "Early Organizing in the Search for Equality: African American Conventions in Late Nineteenth-Century Texas." Seeking Inalienable Rights: Texans and Their Quests for Justice. Ed. Debra A. Reid. College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 2009. 1-16. (Preview)

Beasley, Delilah. The Negro Trail Blazers of California. Los Angeles: Times Mirror, 1919. (Full Text)

Bell, Howard H. A Survey of the Negro Convention Movement, 1830-1861. New York: Arno Press, 1969. (Preview)

----. "The American Moral Reform Society, 1836-1841." The Journal of Negro Education 27.1 (1958): 34-40. (Preview)

---. “Free Negroes of the North 1830-1835: A Study in National Cooperation.” The Journal of Negro Education 26.4 (1957): 447-455. (Preview)

---.  Minutes and Proceedings of the National Negro Conventions, 1830–1864. Ed. Howard Holman Bell. New York: Arno Press, 1969.

---. “National Negro Conventions of the Middle 1840’s: Moral Suasion Vs. Political Action.” The Journal of Negro History 42.4 (1957). (Preview)

---. “Negroes in California, 1849-1859.” Phylon 28.2 (1967): 151–160. (Preview)

---. “Some Reform Interests of the Negro During the 1850’s as Reflected in State Conventions.”Phylon 21.2 (1960): 173–181. (Preview)

Casey, Jim. "Convention Minutes and Unconventional Proceedings." Common-place.org.  (Fall 2015). (Full text)

Cheek, William F., and Aimee Lee Cheek.  John Mercer Langston and the Fight for Black Freedom, 1829-65. Urbana-Champaign, Il: University of Illinois Press, 1996. (Preview)

Cimprich, John. “The Beginning of the Black Suffrage Movement in Tennessee, 1864-65.” The Journal of Negro History 65.3 (Summer 1980): 185-195. (Preview)

Comminey, Shawn C. "National Black Conventions and the Quest for African American Freedom and Progress, 1847-1867." International Social Science Review: 91.1 (2015). Web. (Preview

Cooper, Frederick. “Elevating the Race: The Social Thought of Black Leaders, 1827-50.” American Quarterly 24.5 (1972): 604–625. (Preview)

Crane, Gregg D. Race, Citizenship, and Law in American Literature. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002. (Preview)

Cromwell, John W. The Early Negro Convention Movement. Washington, DC: The American Negro Academy, 1904. (Full Text)

Cromwell, John W. The Negro in American History. Washington, DC: The American Negro Academy, 1914. (Full Text)

Daniels, Douglas Henry. Pioneer Urbanites: A Social and Cultural History of Black San Francisco. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1980. (Preview)

Davis, Hugh. “We Will Be Satisfied With Nothing Less”: The African American Struggle for Equal Rights in the North during Reconstruction. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2011. Print. (Preview)

Du Bois, W. E. B. Black Reconstruction in America. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Co., 1935. (Full Text)

Ernest, John. A Nation Within a Nation: Organizing African-American Communities before the Civil War. Chicago: Ivan R. Dee, 2011. (Preview)

---. Liberation Historiography: African-American Writers and the Challenges of History, 1794-1861. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2004. (Preview)

Fagan, Benjamin. "Colored Conventions and the Early Black Press." Black Press Research Collective. Ed. Kim Gallon. 31 January 2015. (Full Text)

Foner, Philip S. "The Convention Movement." History of Black Americans: From the Emergence of the Cotton Kingdom to the Eve of the Compromise of 1850. The African American Experience. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group, 1983. (Preview)

Foner, Philip Sheldon, and George Elizur Walker, eds. Proceedings of the Black State Conventions: 1840 - 1865. 2 vols. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1979. (Preview)

---. Proceedings of the Black National and State Conventions, 1865-1900. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1986. (Preview)

Forbes, Ella. African American Women During the Civil War. New York: Garland Publishing, 1998. (Preview)

Foreman, P. Gabrielle. "The Colored Conventions Project and the Changing Same." Common-place.org.  (Fall 2015). (Full text)

Gallaher, Ruth A. "A Colored Convention." The Palimpsest 2.6 (1921): 178-181. (Full Text)

Garb, Margaret. Freedom’s Ballot: African American Political Struggles in Chicago from Abolition to the Great Migration. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2014. (Preview)

Gardner, Eric. "Black Conventions, Activist Networks, and the Recorder." Black Print Culture. Ed. Eric Gardner. 11 September 2015. (Full Text)

 ---. “Early African American Print Culture and the American West” in Early African American Print Culture. Eds. Lara L. Cohen and Jordan A. Stein. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2012. (Preview)

Gibbs, Mifflin Wistar. Shadow and Light: An Autobiography with Reminiscences of the Last and Present Century. Washington DC: M. W. Gibbs, 1902. (Preview)

Glaude, Eddie S. Exodus!: Religion, Race, and Nation in Early Nineteenth-Century Black America. University of Chicago Press, 2000. (Preview)

Gliozzo, Charles A. “John Jones and the Black Convention Movement, 1848-1856.” Journal of Black Studies 3.2 (1972): 227–236. (Preview)

Gross, Bella. Clarion Call: The History and Development of the Negro People’s Convention Movement in the United States from 1817 to 1840. New York: Published by the Author, 1947. (Limited)

---. “The First National Negro Convention.” The Journal of Negro History 31.4 (1946): 435-443. (Preview)

Hahn, Steven. A Nation Under Our Feet: Black Political Struggles in the Rural South from Slavery to the Great Migration. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2003. (Preview)

Harding, Vincent. There Is a River: The Black Struggle for Freedom in America. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1992. (Preview)

Harris, Leslie M. In the Shadow of Slavery: African Americans in New York City, 1626-1863. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2003. Print (Preview)

Harrison, Victoria L.. “We Are Here Assembled: Illinois Colored Conventions, 1853-1873”. Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society 108.3-4 (2015): 322–346. Web. (Full Text)

Harrold, Stanley. The Rise of Aggressive Abolitionism: Addresses to the Slaves. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 2004. (Preview

Holt, Thomas C. Black over White, Negro Political Leadership in South Carolina. Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1977. (Preview)

Horton, James Oliver. Hard Road to Freedom: The Story of African America. From African Roots through the Civil War. Volume One. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2002. (Preview

Horton, James, and Lois E. Horton. In Hope of LibertyCulture, Community and Protest among Northern Free Blacks, 1700-1860. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998. (Preview)

---. Slavery and the Making of America. New York: Oxford University Press, 2006. (Preview)

Horton, James Oliver and Stacy Flaherty. “Black Leadership in Antebellum Cincinnati.” Race and the City: Work, Community, and Protest in Cincinnati, 1820-1970. Henry Louis Taylor, Jr. Ed. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1993. 70-95. (Book Preview)

Horton, Lois. “Community Organization and Social Activism: Black Boston and the Antislavery Movement.” Sociological Inquiry 55.2 (April 1985): 182–199. (Preview)

Hudson, Lynn M. The Making of Mammy Pleasant: A Black Entrepreneur in Nineteenth-Century San Francisco. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2003, 2008. (Preview

Hutton, Frankie. The Early Black Press in America, 1827 to 1860. Westport: Greenwood Press, 1993. (Preview)

Joens, David A. From Slave to State Legislator: John W.E. Thomas, Illinois' First African American Lawmaker. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 2012. (Preview)

Johnson, Andre E. "All Aboard: Bishop Henry McNeal Turner and the 1893 National Negro Convention."Patheos. Rhetoric | Race | & Religion. 8 May 2015. (Full Text: Part One) (Full Text: Part Two)

Johnson, Andre E, ed. An African American Pastor Before and During the American Civil War, 1866-1880.Vol 3–4. New York: Edwin Mellen Press, 2013. (Limited

---. The Forgotten Prophet: Bishop Henry McNeal Turner and the African American Prophetic Tradition. Lanham: Lexington Books, 2012. (Preview)

Jones, Douglas A. The Captive StagePerformance and Proslavery Imagination of the Antebellum North. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2014. (Preview)

---. “Thinking, Scripting, and Performing: Constructing and Playing the Racial Synecdoche in the Antebellum North.” Thesis. University of Maryland, 2007. (Full Text)

Jones, Martha S. All Bound Up Together: The Woman Question in African American Public Culture, 1830-1900. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2007. (Preview)

Kachun, Mitch.  Festivals of Freedom: Memory and Meaning in African American Emancipation Celebrations, 1808 – 1915. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 2003. (Preview)

Lapp, Rudolph M. Blacks in Gold Rush California. Binghamton, NY: Vail-Ballou Press, 1977. (Preview)

LaRoche, Cheryl Janifer. Free Black Communities and the Underground Railroad: The Geography of Resistance. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2014. (Preview)

LeForge, Judy Bussell. “State Colored Conventions of Tennessee, 1865-1866.” Tennessee Historical Quarterly 65.3 (2006): 230–253. (Preview)

---. "Alabama's Colored Conventions and the Exodus Movement, 1871-1879." The Alabama Review 63.1 (2010): 3-29. (Preview)

Lewis, Elsie M. “The Political Mind of the Negro, 1865-1900.” The Journal of Southern History 21.2 (May 1955): 189-202. (Preview)

Logan, Shirley Wilson. “We Are Coming”: The Persuasive Discourse of Nineteenth-Century Black Women. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1999. (Preview)

Lovett, Bobby L. “African Americans, Civil War, and Aftermath in Arkansas.” The Arkansas Historical Quarterly 54.3 (Autumn 1995): 304-358. (Preview)

McHenry, Elizabeth. Forgotten Readers: Recovering the Lost History of African American Literary Societies. Durham: Duke University Press, 2002. (Preview)

Miller, Floyd John. The Search for a Black Nationality: Black Emigration and Colonization, 1787-1863. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1975. (Preview)

Moses, Wilson Jeremiah. The Golden Age of Black Nationalism, 1850-1925. Oxford University Press, 1978. (Preview)

---. Alexander Crummell: A Study of Civilization and Discontent. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989. (Preview)

Newman, Richard S. The Transformation of American Abolitionism: Fighting Slavery in the Early Republic. Chapel: University of North Carolina Press, 2002. (Preview)

Noel, Jana. “Jeremiah B. Sanderson: Educator and Organizer for the Rights of ‘Colored Citizens’ in Early California.” The Journal of Negro Education 74.2 (2005): 151–158. (Preview)

Normen, Elizabeth J. ed. African American Connecticut Explored. Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press, 2014. (Preview)

Ochiai, Akiko. Harvesting Freedom: African American Agrarianism in Civil War Era South Carolina. Westport: Praeger Publishers, 2004. (Preview)

Oubre, Charles F. Forty Acres and a Mule: The Freedmen’s Bureau and Black Land Ownership. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1978. (Preview)

Painter, Nell Irvin. Exodusters: Black Migration to Kansas after Reconstruction. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1977. (Preview)

Patterson, Sarah. "Toward Meaning-making in the Digital Age: Black Women, Black Data and Colored Conventions." Common-place.org.  (Fall 2015). (Full text)

Pease, Jane H., and William H. Pease. “Black Power -- The Debate in 1840.” Phylon 29.1 (1968): 19–26. (Preview)

---. “Negro Conventions and the Problem of Black Leadership.” Journal of Black Studies 2.1 (1971): 29–44. (Preview)

---. They Who Would Be Free: Blacks’ Search for Freedom, 1830-1861. New York: Atheneum, 1974. (Limited)

Peterson, Carla. Black Gotham: A Family History of African Americans in Nineteenth-Century New York City. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2011. (Preview)

---. “Doers of the Word”: African-American Women Speakers & Writers in the North (1830–1880). New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1995. (Preview)

Porter, Dorothy. ed. Early Negro Writing, 1760-1837. Boston: Beacon Press, 1971. (Preview)

Quarles, Benjamin. Black Abolitionists. Oxford University Press, 1969. (Preview)

Rael, Patrick. Black Identity and Black Protest in the Antebellum North. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2001. (Preview)

Redkey, Edwin. Black Exodus: Black Nationalist and Back to Africa Movements, 1890-1910. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1969. (Preview)

Reed, Harry Atwood. Platform for Change: The Foundations of the Northern Free Black Community, 1775-1865. East Lansing: Michigan State University Press, 1994. (Preview)

Rhodes, Jane. Mary Ann Shadd Cary: The Black Press and Protest in the Nineteenth Century. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1998. (Preview)

Ripley, Peter C. ed. The Black Abolitionist Papers. Volume III. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 1991. (Limited

Roberts, Rita. Evangelicalism and the Politics of Reform in Northern Black Thought, 1776-1863. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2011. (Preview)

Rudisell, Carol A. "Liberating History: Reflections on Rights, Rituals and the Colored Conventions Project." Common-place.org.  (Fall 2015). (Full text)

Small, Curtis. "The Colored Conventions Movement in Print and Beyond." Common-place.org.  (Fall 2015). (Full text)

Smith, Stacy L. Freedom’s Frontiers: California and the Struggle over Unfree Labor, Emancipation, and Reconstruction.  Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina, 2013. (Preview)

Smythe, Hugh H. “Changing Patterns in Negro Leadership.” Social Forces 29.2 (1950): 191–197. (Preview)

Spires, Derrick. “Imagining a State of Fellow Citizens: Early African American Politics of Publicity in the Black State Conventions” in Early African American Print Culture. Eds. Lara L. Cohen and Jordan A. Stein. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2012. (Preview)

Stauffer, John. The Black Hearts of Men: Radical Abolitionists and the Transformation of Race. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2002. (Preview)

Sterling, Dorothy, ed. Speak Out in Thunder Tones: Letters and Other Writings by Black Northerners, 1787-1865. New York: Da Capo Press, 1973. (Preview)

Sterling, Dorothy. We are Your Sisters: Black Women in the Nineteenth-Century. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 1984. (Preview)

Stuckey, Sterling. Ideological Origins of Black Nationalism. Boston: Beacon Press, 1972. (Preview)

Swift, David E. Black Prophets of Justice: Activist Clergy Before the Civil War. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1989. (Preview)

Tate, Gayle. Unknown TonguesBlack Women's Political Activism in the Antebellum Era, 1830-1860. East Lansing: Michigan State University Press, 2003. (Preview

Taylor, A. A. “The Convention of 1868.” The Journal of Negro History vol. 9 no. 4 (October 1924): 381-408. (Preview)

Taylor, Alrutheus A. The Negro in Tennessee, 1865-1880. Washington, D.C.: Associated Pub., 1941. (

Tate, Gayle. Unknown Tongues: Black Women's Political Activism in the Antebellum Era, 1830-1860. East Lansing: Michigan State University Press, 2003. (Preview)

Taylor, Nikki M. Frontiers of Freedom: Cincinnati’s Black Community, 1802-1868. Athens: Ohio University Press, 2005. (Preview)

Taylor, Quintard. In Search of the Racial Frontier: African Americans in the American West, 1528­1990. New York: W.W. Norton, 1998. (Preview

Walker, Juliet E. K. The History of Black Businesses in America: Capitalism, Race, Entrepreneurship. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2009. (Preview)

Weiner, Mark. Black Trials: Citizenship from the Beginnings of Slavery to the End of Caste. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2004. (Preview)

Wellman, Judith. Brooklyn’s Promised Land. New York: New York University Press, 2014. (Preview)

Winch, Julie.  Philadelphia’s Black Elite: Activism, Accommodation, and the Struggle for Equality, 1787-1848. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1988. (Preview)

Wintory, Blake J. “African-American Legislators in the Arkansas General Assembly, 1868-1893.” The Arkansas Historical Quarterly vol. 65 no. 4 (Winter 2006): 385-434. (Preview)

Wong, Edlie. Neither Fugitive nor Free: Atlantic Slavery, Freedom Suits, and the Legal Culture of Travel. New York: New York University Press, 2009. (Preview)

Woodson, Carter G. ed. The Mind of the Negro as Reflected in Letters Written During the Crisis, 1800-1860. Westport: Greenwood Press, 1969. (Preview

Yee, Shirley.  Black Women Abolitionists: A Study in Activism, 1828-1860. Knoxville, University of Tennessee Press, 1992. (Preview)

 ---. “Black Women Abolitionists: A Study of Gender and Race in the American Antislavery Movement, 1828-1860.” Dissertation, Ohio State University, 1987. (Limited)

Young, R. J. Antebellum Black Activists: Race, Gender, and Self. New York: Garland Publishing, 1996. (Preview)