[1] Klingman, Peter D. “Race and Faction in the Public Career of Florida’s Josiah T. Walls,” in Howard Rabinowitz, ed., Southern Black Leaders of the Reconstruction Era, Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1982, p. 59.

[2] Klingman, p. 73.

[3] Southern States Convention of Colored Men (1871 : Columbia, SC), “Proceedings of the Southern States Convention of Colored Men, held in Columbia, S.C., commencing October 18, ending October 25, 1871,”

[4] State Conference of the Colored Men of Florida (1884 : Gainesville, FL), “Proceedings of the State Conference of the colored men of Florida, held at Gainesville, February 5, 1884,”

[5] Klingman, p. 75.


Written by: Rachel Nelson for ENGL/HIST 677, taught by P. Gabrielle Foreman, University of Delaware, Spring 2019.

Edited by P. Gabrielle Foreman.

Acknowledgements: Samantha de Vera and Michelle Byrnes for further edits, visualization contributions, and technical assistance.