[1] Baraka, Imamu Amiri. ” The Phenomenon of Soul in African American Music.” The Music: Reflections on Jazz and Blues. New York, NY:  Morrow, 1987, pp. 332. Retrieved from: Black Thought and Culture. (p. 270)

[2] “African American Music as Resistance,” Lawrence W. Levine. from. Burnim, Mellonee V, and Portia K. Maultsby. African American Music: An Introduction. 2015. (p. 587-588).