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Georgia State Colored Convention, Macon, November 1869


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out of their shares in the crop; whites are "still whipping and slashing as usual;" Mitchell County, whipping prevails to some extent; Newtown County, Negroes afraid to live at home— Ku-Klux outrages frequent; one girl was carried off, beaten and not heard of since. Justices of the Peace refuse to order arrests; no Ku-Klux in Putnam County; Schley County, one woman beaten while defending her child; a lawyer said that it was necessary to beat Negroes once in awhile to make them know their places; schoolhouse burned because a political meeting was held in it; several men in jail were promised their release if they would vote the Democratic ticket; in Tatnall County, the Negroes don't know that they are free— cannot hold meetings; Troupe County, all quiet, no outrages; in Wilkinson County, the whites generally pay fairly according to contract— no outrages; in Washington County, the colored people are getting along well, with good wages and no outrages; same in Webster County, except that it is difficult to obtain justice before the courts.— New York Tribune.

National Anti-Slavery Standard, November 13, 1869.


1. Between 1854 and 1868, Chinese immigrant labor was largely employed in the construction of the transcontinental railroad projects. The Burlingame Treaty of 1868 gave the Chinese the right to immigrate to the United States, but anti-Chinese sentiment on the Pacific coast resulted in the enactment by Congress in 1879 of a bill abrogating the provision. The new treaty, passed on November 17, 1880, permitted the United States to "regulate, limit or suspend" but not to prohibit the entry of Chinese laborers. As a result, Chinese immigration grew to 160,000, with peak reached in 1882 alone of 39,579. Finally, in 1882 a bill to prohibit the immigration of Chinese laborers for a period of ten years received the signature of President Arthur. It was extended for an additional ten years in 1892 by the Greary Act, and extended indefinitely in 1902. The laws were repealed in 1943.

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