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Liberty, and equality before the law. :Proceedings of the Convention of the Colored People of Va., held in the city of Alexandria, Aug. 2, 3, 4, 5, 1865.


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4. The reference is to Napoleon III (Louis Napoleon Bonaparte),1808-1873, emperor of the French (1852-1870) and son of Louis Bonaparte, king of Holland. He was also the nephew of Napoleon I.

5. Francis Harrison Pierpont (1814-1899) was governor of the "restored" state of Virginia from 1861 to 1868. For a time his name was spelled as Pierpoint by the Virginia branch of the family until 1881, when Francis Harrison returned to the older spelling, Pierpont.

6. The reference is to Alfred Howe Terry (1827-1890), Civil War soldier. Soon after the outbreak of the Civil War he was commissioned colonel of the 2nd Connecticut Militia, a three months' regiment, and participated in the first battle of Bull Run. After the bombardment, seige, and capture of Fort Pulaski, Georgia, in April 1862, Terry was promoted to brigadier general of volunteers. In 1863 Terry was·transferred to the Army of the James under Gen. Benjamin F. Butler and the following year was engaged mainly in operations against Richmond and Petersburg. On January 15, 1865, he was advanced to brigadier general in the regular army and received the thanks of Congress with particular reference to the capture of Fort Fisher.

7. The reference is to John Wesley Turner (1833-1899), Civil War soilder. After the outbreak of hostilities Turner was commissioned captain in the commissary department and served as chief commissary under Gen. David Hunter in Kansas from December 1861 to March 1862, and in the same capacity under General Hunter when the latter was in command of the Department of the South in April 1862. In May of the same year he served as chief commissary on the staff of Gen. Benjamin F. Butler at New Orleans and remained with him to the end of the year. After General Hunter was relieved of his command, Turner was made chief of staff and chief of artillery in June 1863 and took part in the siege of Fort Wagner and the attack on Fort Sumter. From November 20, 1864, to January 12, 1865, he was chief of staff of the Army of James.

8. The attack on Fort Wagner, July 18, 1863, was led by the 54th Masschusetts, the first colored regiment from the North. Sergeant William H. Carney planted the colors of the regiment on top of the fort. Several of the commanders were killed, including Colonel Robert Gould Shaw; many were wounded, and the brigade was compelled to retire.

9. In the battle of Port Hudson, a Confederate stronghold on the lower Mississippi (May 27, 1863), two black regiments, the First and Third Louisiana Native Guards, distinguished themselves for bravery and received special commendation from General Banks.

10. At the battle of Milliken's Bend, Louisiana, on June 7,1863, the black soldiers were extremely important, and in bitter hand-to-hand fighting were victorious. Negro soldiers who were wounded were killed in this and in other battles, the common slogan of the Confederates being that no quarter should be shown them.

11. Horatio Seymour (1810-1886), Democratic governor of New York and leader of the "Peace Democracy," opposed the Emancipation Proclamation, urged an early end to the war, and was labeled a Copperhead by Horace Greeley. Seymour denounced the arrest of Clement L. Vallandigham, leader of the Copperheads-- those in the North who favored the South.

12. Reuben Eaton Fenton (1819-1885) was a United States congressman, senator, and governor of New York. Elected to congress in 1852, under the Demoratic Party, he later opposed the Kansas-Nebraska Bill, which marked his break with that organization over the slavery issue. He lost his re-election bid in 1854 but went on to win another term in congress in 1856, under the Republican Party, the group which he helped to found. He resigned his seat upon his election as governor in 1864, serving until 1868. Elected to the senate in 1869, he held that post until 1875. An astute politician, Fenton was credited with building one of the most powerful political machines in the history of the state and was regarded as its ablest political organizer after Martin Van Buren.

13. The reference is to George Brinton McClellan (1826-1885), Civil War general and Democratic presidential candidate in 1864. Appointed by Lincoln as general-in-chief of the Army of the Potomac in 1862, he failed to take the military initiative against the Confederate armies and gained a reputation for vacillation and mismanagement until he was removed from that post by the president. When Lincoln issued his proclamation of emancipation, McClellan

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