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Proceedings of the California State Convention of the Colored Citizens, Held in Sacramento on the 25th, 26th, 27th, and 28th of October, 1865.
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BLACK STATE CONVENTIONS
2. The Fenian Movement was a secret revolutionary society, organized around 1858 in Ireland and the United States to achieve Irish separation from England by force of arms. It went under many names, including the Fenian Brotherhood and the Irish-American Brotherhood. John O'Mahony, organizer of the movement in the United States, gave the society its name, which was reminiscent of the ancient Irish military corps of Fenians.
3. Andersonville was the notorious Confederate prison in southwestern Georgia for Union prisoners, who were packed together with little food and hardly any medicine. From June to September 1864, 8,589 prisoners died in Andersonville.
4. Daniel O'Connell (1775-1847) was the famous Irish liberator, orator and abolitionist.
5. The reference is to John Joseph Hughes (1797-1864), Roman Catholic prelate. Hughes claimed to reprobate slavery and yet he opposed the manifesto of his Irish friends, Daniel O'Connell and Theophilus Mathew, who urged the American Irish to vote against the slave interest (1842). On one occasion, after traveling through the South, slavery ceased to shock him and he wondered if emancipation would not be detrimental to blacks. When the Civil War came, he accepted the conflict as a fact and encouraged the support of the Union. During the notorious anti-black Draft Riots of New York City in 1863, however, he invited the rioters, of whom a large proportion were Irish, to his Madison Avenue residence. From a chair in the balcony, clad in purple robes and other insignia of office, he gave them his blessing and urged them to "stop these proceedings and support the law."
6. Joseph Hooker (1814-1879), West Point graduate and Union general in the Civil War, had earlier gained attention for his gallantry in the Mexican War. During the Civil War he distinguished himself in subordinate commands in the Peninsula campaign, at the second battle of Bull Run, and in the Antietam Campaign. Made a brigadier general in September 1862, he later succeeded to the command of the Army of the Potomac in January 1863.
7. David Dixon Porter (1813-1891), American admiral, led the mortar flotilla of the fleet commanded by D. G. Farragut in the successful assault on New Orleans (1862) and in 1863 contributed to U. S. Grant's success in the Vicksburg campaign. For these services on the Mississippi he was made a rear admiral.
8. In October 1814, Massachusetts, acting in behalf of her sister New England states, issued a call for the Hartford Convention, which gathering was designed to halt continued New England participation in the War of 1812 and possible secession from the Union. Although the Convention never assembled, its association with such ideas as state-rights, secession and nullification discredited its aims and led to the ruin of the Federalist Party.
9. American Revolutionary patriot and signer of the Declaration of Independence, George Walton (1741?-1804) was later governor of Georgia (1779-1780, 1789-1790) and briefly U. S. senator from 1795 to 1796.
10. The reference is to Johann Christoph Friedrick von Schiller (1759-1805), German dramatist, poet, and historian and one of the greatest of German literary figures.
11. The Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre, which got under way on August 24, 1572, involved the mass killing of French Protestant (Huguenot) leaders. It was preceded, on August 22, by an attempt ordered by Catherine De Medici on the life of Admiral Coligny. When this attempt failed, plans were made for a general massacre.
12. Philip II (1527-1598) was the King of Spain, Naples, and Sicily (1556-1598) and, as Philip I, King of Portugal (1580-1598). He ascended the throne on the abdication of his father, Emperor Charles I of Spain and V of the Holy Roman Empire. During Philip's reign persecution and the Inquisition were employed to eliminate any resistance to his policy of centralizing power under an absolute monarchy.
13. George Jeffreys (1645?-1689), First Baron of Wem, was a judge noted for his merciless cruelty. He was responsible for the judicial murder of Algernon Sidney (1622-1683), the English republican and opponent of Oliver Cromwell's dictatorship, and the brutal trials involving Richard Baxter (1615-1691), the noncomformist clergyman and others. One one occasion, during the Bloody Assizes, in the western counties, he caused nearly two hundred to be hanged and some eight hundred transported, and many more imprisoned or
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