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Proceedings of the Convention, of the Colored Freemen of Ohio, Held in Cincinnati, January 14, 15, 16, 17 and 19, 1852.


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295 OHIO, 1852

after the Civil War and insisted that the Southern blacks be enfranchised and planter estates confiscated and distributed among blacks.

6. Louis Kossuth (1802-1894), Hungarian patriot and leader of the unsuccessful national revolt of 1849, disappointed American abolitionists because of his avoidance of the slavery issue while on tour of the United States in order to get maximum support for the, cause of Hungarian independence. For Douglass' criticism of Kossuth, see "Letter to Kossuth," Frederick Douglass' Paper, Feb. 26, 1852, reprinted in Foner, Life and Writings of Frederick Douglass, II, 170-172.

7. In February 1851, Shadrach, a Negro waiter in Boston, was arrested and charged with having escaped from the South. Before the case was decided, a body of Negroes led by Lewis Hayden broke into the prison, seized Shadrach, and dispatched him to Canada.

8. Simon Bolivar (1783-1830), South American revolutionist, was called the Liberator. When the revolution against Spain broke out in 1810, he became a militant and enthusiastic patriot. With the subsequent independence of several South American states during the 1820's, Bolivar became the president of Greater Columbia and created Bolivia. In 1826 he expanded his vision of a united South America by calling the first Pan American Conference, which convened at Panama. While he failed in his attempts to bring about continental unity due to internal dissensions, petty jealousies, and fears of dictatorship which several republics thought he was trying to foster, he nevertheless is today considered the greatest of Latin American heroes.

9. The Jerry Rescue occurred at Syracuse, New York, on October 1, 1851. Gerrit Smith and other abolitionists forcibly rescued the fugitive slave Jerry McHenry, who had been seized and imprisoned by a deputy United States marshal, and helped him to escape to Canada and to freedom. A number of those involved in the rescue were arrested and tried.

10. In the early dawn of September 11, 1851, an attack was made on the home of William Parker, of Christiana, Pennsylvania, to arrest some fugitive slaves said to be hidden there. The Negroes in the neighborhood came to their defense, and a battle took place in which Gorsuch, a Maryland slaveowner, was killed by Parker and Gorsuch's son was wounded. Parker escaped to Canada, assisted from Rochester by Frederick Douglass. Thirty-eight of the men involved in the battle, thirty-six Negroes and two whites were indicted for treason against the United States and brought to trial in Lancaster County Courthouse. Castner Hanway, a Quaker who had refused to assist in capturing the fugitives, was the first to be tried. The jury found Hanway not guilty, and the others were released. An old study of the Christiana Riot is W. U. Hensel, The Christiana Riot and the Treason Trials of 1851 (Lancaster, Pa. 1911). But it has been superseded by Jonathan Katz, Resistance at Christiana: The Fugitive Slave Rebellion, Christiana, Pennsylvania, September 11, 1851: A Documentary Account (New York, 1974).

11. William and Ellen Craft were the famous black couple from Georgia who escaped from slavery by the ingenious method of her assuming the of a slaveowner and he serving as her slave. After their escape, they lectured widely in the North and England.

12. The reference is to Henry "Box" Brown, a slave, who in 1856 was put ina box and shipped from Richmond to Philadelphia by way of the Adams Express Company. On arriving at the Anti-Slavery Office in Philadelphia, his sudden "resurrection" form his confinement created a sensation among the abolitionists and their sympathizers gained new adherents to the cause.

13. The reference is to Edward Livingston (1764-1836), celebrated jurist, statesman and diplomat. In a long and brilliant career he served in Congress as a Jeffersonian Republican (1795-1801), was appointed a U.S. district attorney of New York (1801) and from 1801 to 1803 served as the elected Mayor of New York City. Financial difficulties drove him to New Orleans, where in 1803, he resumed the practice of law. Later he entered Louisiana politics, serving successively as a state legislator (1820), congressman (1822-1829), U.S. senator (1829-1831), and as President Jackson's Secretary of State (1833-1835). He gained enduring fame, however, as a codifier of laws, drafting in 1805 a code of procedure, which was adopted by the Louisiana legislature and was the first real law code in the United States. In 1825 he presented to the Louisiana legislature a comprehensive criminal code. Although not adopted by that body, it gained considerable acclaim abroad.

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