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Minutes of the State Convention of the Colored Citizens of Ohio, Convened at Columbus, Jan. 15th, 16th, 17th and 18, 1851.


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OHIO, 1851

militia in the vicinity of Bunker Hill, he was shot dead by a British soldier on June 17, 1775.

2. Francis Marion (1732-1795) was an American Revolutionary War hero whose brilliant military exploits, particularly in the South, helped to turn the tide in favor of the patriot forces.

3. Nero (Nero Claudius Caesar) A.D. 37-A.D. 68. Roman emperor (A.D.54-A.D. 68). This sadistic and infamous ruler murdered his mother and later his wife. In A.D. 64, he burned Rome and blamed the Christians, a growing and persecuted sect, for being responsible. According to Christian tradition his victims included St. Peter and St. Paul.

4. Caligula (Caius Caesar Germanicus) A.D. 12-A.D. 41. Roman emperor (A.D. 37-A.D. 41). When he was a small child with his parents on the Rhine he wore military boots, whence his nickname [caligula=little boots]. His name has become virtually synonymous for ruthless and cruel autocracy, and during his reign torture and execution became the order of the day.

5. Ahasuerus (519?-465 B.C.) is the Hebrew form of the name Xerxes, as used in the Bible. The Ahasuerus of Esther is probably Xerxes I, King of Persia (486-465 B.C.). His name in old Persian is Khshayarsha. In Esther (chapters 3-7), it is recorded that Haman, favored minister of Ahasuerus, commanded that all Jews be put to death. Esther the queen, interceded for her people, and Haman was hanged on the gallows he had set up for Mordecai.

6. William H. Seward, as mentioned above, was a noted American political leader and antislavery senator from New York. Seward opposed the Compromise of 1850, including the Fugitive Slave Bill. He upheld the principle of "Higher Law"--the law of God--under which slavery could never be justified.

7. The reference is to Sir John Fortescue (1394-1476), English jurist and chief justice of the Court of King's Bench from 1442 to 1460.

8. The reference to Sir Edward Coke (1552-1634), eminent English jurist who served for a time in Parliament as solicitor general, speaker of the House of Commons and, finally, as chief justice of the King's Bench after 1613. While sitting on this tribunal, Coke gained fame as an ardent champion of common law against the encroachments of the royal prerogative and declared royal proclamations contrary to law null and void.

9. William Curtis Noyes (1805-1864) was an influential New York lawyer. Originally a Whig, he became a Republican upon the former's demise in 1856. As a staunch Republican, he publicly attacked the Kansas-Nebraska Bill and the Fugitive Slave Law of 1850.

10. Serfdom was finally abolished in Russia by the act of emancipation of February 19, 1861.

11. The reference is to Roger Sherman Baldwin (1793-1863), American lawyer, senator, governor of Connecticut and an organizer of the Republican Party. Baldwin was active in the movement for the abolition of slavery, making speeches on the subject at various times. On one occasion, he obtained a writ of habeas corpus for the release of a black man seized as a fugitive slave, who had escaped from the service of Henry Clay.

12. Christopher Greene (1737-1781), American Revolutionary soldier, headed a Rhode Island regiment of black troops recruited from slaves freed for patriotic service. In 1781, while commanding his lines at Points Bridge in Westchester County, New York, he was surprised by the enemy on May 14 and killed. His brave black soldiers heroically defended him until they were cut to pieces, the enemy reaching him over their dead bodies.

13. The reference is to Crispus Attucks (c. 1723-1770), a runaway slave, who was the first American to die in the American Revolution. He was one of five men killed in the Boston Massacre (March 5, 1770) and the first to die. He was canonized by black Americans of later generations.

14. Samuel Galloway (1811-1872), Ohio lawyer, educator and congressman, served as secretary of state of Ohio from 1843 to 1850 and was also in this capacity ex-officio superintendent of schools.

As a result of his Calvinistic educational tradition and his association with Horace Mann, he became an enthusiastic supporter of popular education. His reports to the legislature pointed up the deplorable conditions of the common schools of Ohio which brought about many substantial reforms. While antislavery in sentiments, he nevertheless allied himself with the Whig Party and served in Congress from 1854 to 1856.

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