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Minutes and address of the State Convention of the Colored Citizens of Ohio, convened at Columbus, January 10th, 11th, 12th, & 13th, 1849.


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from his father, who had lived for a while in Louisiana.

11. David Walker (1785-1830) was the black author of a powerful tract, published in Boston at his own expense in 1829, called Walker's Appeal, in Four Articles, addressed to the "coloured citizens" of the world, but particularly to those of the United States. Walker called upon the Negro slaves to revolt and overthrow their oppressors.

12. In August 1843, Garnet attended the National Convention of Negro Citizens at Buffalo, New York, and delivered a militant speech calling for slave rebellions as the surest way to end slavery. It was the most radical speech by a black American during the antebellum period. The proposal stirred the delegates and failed by one vote of being adopted.

13. Refusing to accept Rochester, New York's, system of segregated public schools, Douglass in August 1848 arranged for his daughter Rosetta to attend Seward Seminary, a fashionable school for girls in that city. Shortly there after he left for a visit to Cleveland happy in the thought that his child "was about to enjoy advantages for improving her mind, and fitting her for a useful and honorable life." What was his rage to discover on his return that Rosetta had been isolated in a room by herself and was being taught separately. He promptly protested to the principal "against the cruelty and injustice of treating [my] child as a criminal on account of color." The principal weakly replied that the trustees of the school had objected to the admission of a Negro girl, and to overcome their prejudices by gradual stages had hit upon the idea of having the child taught separately until such time as she could be admitted to the regular classes.

Upon Douglass' protest, the principal of the school submitted the question of Rosetta's status to the pupils and then to their parents. None of the children objected to Rosetta sitting with them, but one parent, H. G. Warner, editor of the Rochester Courier, objected and the child was asked to leave the school. Douglass had already decided to withdraw his daughter from the seminary, but he did not permit the incident to pass over quietly. In a scathing letter to Warner, he promised that he would use all his powers to proclaim this "infamy" to the nation. The incident indeed attracted nationwide attention, for scores of newspapers reprinted his letter. See Philip S. Foner, The Life and Writings of Frederick Douglass (New York, 1950), I, 371- 374.

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