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Proceedings of the State Convention of Coloured Men of the State of New Jersey, Held in the City of Trenton, N.J., July 13th and 14th, 1865; With a Short Address to the Local People of New Jersey, Together with the Constitution of the Equal Rights League of the State of New Jersey.

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Proceedings of the State Convention of Coloured Men of the State of New Jersey, Held in the City of Trenton, N.J., July 13th and 14th, 1865; With a Short Address to the Local People of New Jersey, Together with the Constitution of the Equal Rights League of the State of New Jersey.

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Pamphlet (15 p. ; 25 cm.)

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Public domain. Permission not requested.

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Foner, Philip S. and George E. Walker, eds. (1979) The Proceedings of the Black State Conventions, 1840-1865. Volume 2.

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English

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1865.NJ-07.13.TREN

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Trenton, NJ

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PROCEEDINGS OF THE STATE CONVENTION OF THE COLOURED MEN OF THE STATE OF NEW JERSEY, HELD IN THE CITY OF TRENTON, N.J., JULY 13th AND 14th, 1865.

WITH A SHORT ADDRESS TO THE LOYAL PEOPLE OF NEW JERSEY, TOGETHER WITH THE CONSTITUTION OF THE EQUAL RIGHTS LEAGUE OF THE STATE OF NEW JERSEY.

Published for the Executive Committee of the Equal Right's League of the State of New Jersey, by order of the Convention.

BY WILLIAM STEWARD,

RECORDING SECRETARY OF E.R.L. OF N.J.

J.B. FERGUSON, PRINTER,

BRIDGETON, NEW JERSEY,

1865.

To the Members of the Convention, and Members and Executive of the Equal Right's League of the State of New Jersey.

Gentlemen, &c.:

The undersigned, appointed by the Executive to publish these proceedings, would most respectfully submit the result of his labors. The report has been carefully arranged, and errors where they occurred, corrected to the best of his ability, without impairing the sense of the proceedings as reported.

Truly your obed'nt Servant,

Wm. Steward, Rec. Sec.

 

STATE CONVENTION OF COLORED MEN HELD IN THE CITY OF TRENTON, N.J.

JULY 13th AND, 14th, 1865.

The convention of Colored Men assembled in the Perry Street A.M.E. Church, in Trenton, N.J., July 13, 1865, at 2 o'clock P.M.

Rev. Theodore Gould, of Burlington, called the convention to order. Abijah Gould, Jr., of Bridgeton, was chosen chairman pro tem., and Wm. Steward, of Bridgeton, Secretary.

On motion, a committee of three was appointed on credentials, consisting of:

Rev. Robert Pinn, of Burlington. Rev. Reading B. Johns, of Princeton. Gilbert Reading.

On motion, the audience was addressed by Rev. N. H. Turpin, of Salem, while the committee were out. The Reverend gentleman did not wish to detain or delay the organization of the meeting, but proceeded to make some very pertinent remarks, stating that the object of the meeting was noble and praiseworthy. "The object," said he," of calling this convention was to form some kind of a basis for operations whereby we might secure to ourselves the recognition and use of all political rights. This object should long since have been considered by ourselves and our people."

The committee on credentials reported the names, of delegates whose seats were not contested. The full list as corrected, is as follows:--(This is also the roll of the Equal Right's League of the State of N. Jersey.)

Theodore Gould, Burlington.

Robert Pinn, "

Wm. Conover, Trenton.

Amos H. Johnson, "

Robert B. King, Bordentown

Samuel Allen, Pennington

Samuel Blackwell, "

Nelson H. Turpin, Salem City.

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Samuel G. Gould, Trenton.

John Lewis, "

Thomas H. Cooper, "

James Sernby, "

Gilbert Reading, Princeton.

Reading B. Johns, "

Jas. Schank, "

Wm. Steward, Bridgeton.

Abijah Gould, Jr., "

Benjamin Shortis, Egg Harbor.

Robert Cox, Cape May.

Gideon Lewis, Bordentown.

Anthony Simmons, Honorary.

Amos Davis, "

Benjamin Tilmon, "

Spencer Emmons, "

Alfred Wood, "

Samuel Williams, "

John W. Stephenson, "

Francis Reinear, "

Rev. Mr. Brogden, "

Charles Stille, "

Rev. Jno. Hamilton,"

On motion of Mr. Gould the report be received, objected to, Thos. H. Cooper's name not being on the report, he having presented his credentials.

The committee retire and again report having overlooked the name of T. H. Cooper who is entitled to a seat.

On motion the report was received and adopted.

On motion Mr. Anthony Simmons was made an honorary member.

On motion Mr. Amos Davis was made an honorary member.

On motion Mr. Benjamin Tilmon was made an honorary member.

On motion Mr. Spencer Emmons was made an honorary member.

On motion Mr. Alfred Wood was made an honorary member.

On motion Mr. Samuel Williams of Bordentown was made an honorary member.

On motion Rev. John H. Stephenson was made an honorary member.

On motion Mr. Francis Reinear was made an honorary member.

On motion Rev. Wm. Brogden was made an honorary member.

On motion Mr. Charles Stille was made Sergeant-at-arms of this convention.

Suggestions were made as to appointing a committee on permanent organization, but, on motion of Rev. Theodore Gould, nominations were made for officers from the open house, whereupon Rev. Nelson H. Turpin, Samuel G. Gould and Rev. Theodore Gould were nominated for president. The chair directed voting to be by ballot and appointed Mr. James Schank, of Princeton, and Rev. Thos. H. Cooper, of Trenton, for tellers of the election.

On motion that all the officers be nominated and elected by the first ballot. Lost.

The polls were opened and voting proceeded for president.

On counting the votes it was found that Samuel G. Gould had the greatest number, whereupon the Chair declared Samuel G. Gould, of Trenton, duly and fairly elected president of this body.

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The President elect, upon taking the chair, acknowledged the honor and stated the object of the convention by explaining the actions of [the] convention of Colored men which met in Syracuse, N.Y. on October last.

Suggestions were made as to the number of Vice Presidents, when, on motion, it was carried that two Vice Presidents should be elected. Rev. Theodore Gould, of Burlington, Rev. Thos. H. Cooper, of Trenton, Abijah Gould, Jr., of Bridgeton, Rev. Rob't Pinn, of Burlington, Rev. Reading B. Johns, of Princeton, and Wm. I. Conover, of Trenton, were nominated for Vice Presidents.

On the first ballot it was found that Rev. Theo. Gould had the largest number of votes, who was declared elected first Vice President; and on the second ballot it was found that Rev. Robert Pinn had the greatest number of votes, who was declared elected second Vice President.

On motion the honorary members are allowed all the immunities of other members, lost.

On motion the motions that made "honorary members" be rescinded, lost.

Wm. Steward, of Bridgeton, was nominated for Recording Secretary, Rev. Reading B. Johns, of Princeton, for Corresponding Secretary, Gideon Lewis, of Bordentown, for Recording Secretary, John Lewis, of Trenton, for Cor. Sec'y. On counting the votes it was found that Wm. Steward was declared duly elected Recording Secretary for this convention, and Reading B. Johns, Corresponding Secretary.

For Treasurer, Amos H. Johnson, of Trenton, Abijah Gould, Jr., of Bridgeton, Francis Reinear, of ___________, Gideon Lewis, of Bordentown, and Gilbert Reading, of Princeton, were nominated.

Upon counting the votes, Abijah Gould, Jr., of Bridgeton, was declared elected Treasurer of this convention.

On motion of Rev. T. Gould the following rules, offered by Rev. Reading B. Johns, were adopted as the

RULES OF CONVENTION.

Rule 1. This convention shall convene at the hours of 9 1/2 o'clock, A.M., 2 o'clock, P.M., and 7-3/4 o'clock, P.M.

Rule 2. Two-thirds of the enrolled members shall constitute a quorum.

Rule 3. No member shall speak more than twice on the same question, or subject, nor more than ten minutes the first, nor more than five minutes the last time.

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Rule 4. The Convention shall occupy from the pulpit to the fourth seat of the house inclusive.

Rule 5. These rules may be altered or amended by two-thirds of the members present.

Rule 6. A Chaplain shall be appointed by the Chair for this convention.

Rule 7. All meetings shall be opened and closed with prayer.

Rule 8. The President shall appoint all committees.

Suggestions were made as to appointing a business committee; also a committee on an address to the people of New Jersey; also a committee on finance, when the Chair appointed the following:

On Finance. { Abijah Gould, Jr., Bridgeton. Gideon Lewis, Bordentown. Francis Reinear, -----. }

On Business. { N. H. Turpin, Salem. T. H. Cooper, Trenton. John Lewis, " Gilbert Reading, Princeton. Anthony Simmons, -----.

On Address. { T. Gould, Burlington. Robert Pinn, " Robert Cox, Cape May. Amos H. Johnson, Trenton. Wm. Conover, " Sam'l S. Allen, Pennington. Benjamin Shortis, Egg Harbor.

On motion of Thomas H. Cooper, the convention was changed into an Equal Rights League for the State of New Jersey.

On motion of Thomas H. Cooper, the officers of the convention become officers of the League for the ensuing year.

On motion a committee of three was appointed by the Chair, consisting of Rev. N. H. Turpin, R. B. Johns and Mr. Wm. Steward, to draft a constitution for the League.

On motion, each member was taxed one dollar and fifty cents. Rev. Thos. H. Cooper was appointed Chaplain for the League.

On motion, the evening sessions were devoted to addresses.

The President appointed N. H. Turpin and Wm. Steward to address the audience this evening.

On motion of Mr. Blackwell, the League adjourns to 7-3/4 o'c1ock, P.M.

7

EVENING SESSION.

The evening session was spent in addresses by Rev. N. H. Turpin, of Salem, and Wm. Steward, when it was adjourned until 9 1/2 o'clock, A.M. next day.

SECOND DAY

Friday, July, 14th, 1865, 9 1/2 o'clock, A.M.

On motion of Rev. T. Gould, the rules are suspended, a quorum not being present, and the League is called to order by the President, and opened by the Chaplain by singing the hymn commencing

Jesus, Lord we look to Thee,

and Prayer, after which, on motion, the minutes of yesterday's sessions were read and approved.

On motion, the Rev. Jno. Hamilton; of ________, was made an honorary member.

The Chair being in doubt concerning honorary members, the motion was rescinded. Mr. Hamilton pays the fee and became a member of the League. The committee on the constitution reported a draft, which, on motion of Mr. Reading, was considered by sections.

On motion, the words "if they see proper" are inserted after the word "committee" in Sec. 1, Art. 3.

On motion, after much discussion, Sec. 1, Art. 5, was adopted after filling up the blank left with the words "in the city of Trenton."

On motion, the blank, the consideration of which was previously postponed, in Sec. 1, Art. 3, was filled by inserting the words "in the city of Trenton. "

On motion, the constitution as amended, was then adopted in full.

On motion, all honorary members of the convention become full members of the League by paying one dollar and fifty cents.

On motion, a vote of thanks was offered to the committee on the constitution.

On motion, the League adjourned until 2 o'clock, P.M., by benediction of the Chaplain.

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AFTERNOON SESSION, 2 o'clock, P.M.

The League met as per adjournment, and called to order by the President. Opened by the Rev. R. B. Johns, the Chaplain not being present.

On motion, it was carried that (four) members be nominated from the League, and balloted for, to form a part of the Executive Committee.

Abijah Gould, Jr., N. H. Turpin, R. B. Johns, Gilbert Reading, Rob't B. King, Anthony Simmons, Gideon Lewis and Thomas H. Cooper were nominated, and on counting the votes, the President declared Revs. N. H. Turpin, R. B. Johns, Thos. H. Cooper and Mr. Gideon Lewis to be duly and fairly elected a constitutional part of the Executive Committee.

The business committee reports resolutions relative to taking the census of the colored people, &c., of the State of N. Jersey (see appendix) and other resolutions.

On motion of T. Gould, the resolutions were adopted as a whole.

On motion, two delegates were to be elected from this body to represent this state in the National Equal Right's League which meets in Philadelphia in September next.

Samuel G. Gould, R. B. Johns, Wm. Steward, N. H. Turpin, Gideon Lewis, J. B. Hamilton and T. Gould were nominated.

On counting the votes, Sam'l G. Gould and Rev. N. H. Turpin were found and declared to be elected to represent this state in the National League.

The financial committee reports forty three dollars and fifty-six cents on hand, also a bill from S. G. Gould, of five dollars and forty cents for stationery &c. On motion the bill was ordered paid.

On motion, four dollars were ordered paid to the Trustees of the Church for the use of the building.

On motion, the Sexton was allowed a collection from the assemblage.

On motion, the Treasurer gave an approved bond and security of the sum of three hundred ($300.) dollars for the faithful discharge of his duties. Rev. Theodore Gould being received for surety.

An apportionment was made for Princeton to pay nine ($9.00) dollars; Trenton, nine ($9.00) dollars; Bordentown, nine ($9.00) dollars; Burlington,

eleven ($11.00) dollars; Pennington, Gouldtown, (Bridgeton) Salem City, each ($9.00) dollars; Egg Harbor, seven ($7.00) dollars; and Cape May, nine ($9.00) dollars, into the treasury by the first of September, 1865, to defray expense of having this state represented in the National League.

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The committee report on address, which, on motion was adopted and ordered to be printed. (See appendix.)

On motion a copy was to be sent to the Christian Recorder, the Anglo African and Colored Citizen.

On motion the Corresponding Secretary was paid one dollar and fifty cents for stationery &c.

On motion the treasurer's bond is to be held by the Recording Secretary.

On motion, the Secretaries receive each two dollars and fifty cents, lost.

On motion, the evening session was devoted to business.

On motion, adjourned.

EVENING SESSION.

The League was called to order at the hour appointed by the President, opened by Rev. Wm. Hamilton by singing

Lord, in the morning Thou shalt hear,

and prayer.

On calling the roll it was ascertained that thirty members had paid the stipulated fee of one dollar and fifty cents, and became full members of the League.

On motion the resolutions relative to taking the census &c., were taken up and discussed.

On motion a committee of three, consisting of Wm. Steward, N. H. Turpin and J.B.Hamilton was appointed to divide the State into districts, seven in all, containing not more than three nor less than two counties in a district.

While the committee was out, the President called upon the Rev. T. H. Cooper to address the audience, who declined on the plea of indisposition. J. W. Stephenson is next called for, who promptly responds, and entertained the audience until the committee returned.

The committee, through their Chairman, reports the following divisions:

Division 1. Warren and Sussex Counties.

   "         2. Morris, Passaic, Bergen "
   "         3. Hudson, Essex, Somerset Counties.
   "         4. Hunterdon, Mercer, Middlesex"
   "         5. Burlington, Ocean, Monmouth
   "         6. Camden, Gloucester, Atlantic"
   "         7. Salem, Cumberland, Cape May "

Which was, on motion of Mr. Reading, received and adopted.

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On motion, the Recording Secretary was compensated with five ($5.00) dollars, and the Corresponding Secretary with two dollars and fifty cents ($2.50) for their labors.

On motion a vote of thanks was tendered to the Pastor and Trustees of the church.

On motion a vote of thanks was tendered to the President for the able manner in which he has conducted the business of this body.

On motion the minutes were read, approved and adopted, and ordered to be printed.

On motion the League now adjourns until the second Tuesday in September, eighteen hundred and sixty-six, (1866)

Wm. Steward, Recording Secretary.

 

EXECUTIVE SESSION

Immediately on the adjournment of the League, the Executive met, two of its members, however, being absent.

The matter of immediately publishing the minutes was brought up, and after some discussion it was ordered that the Recording Secretary should arrange and publish the minutes at the earliest possible moment, and that he should fix the price from the cost of publication and that all orders be sent to him for copies of the same.

WM. STEWARD, Rec. Sec.

Trenton, N.J., July 14, 1865.

The President appoints Tuesday, August 15th, 1865, for the first regular meeting of the Executive Committee at 3 o'clock, P.M.

Executive committee. { S. G. Gould, Trenton. T. Gould, Burlington. N. H. Turpin, Salem. R. B. Johns, Princeton. T. H. Cooper, Trenton. Gideon Lewis, Bordentown. Wm. Steward, Bridgeton.

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APPENDIX


RESOLUTIONS

1. Resolved, That a census of the colored population of the State be taken by the Equal Right's League, of the State of N. Jersey; the number of males above the age of twenty-one years; the number of colored soldiers furnished by the state either as volunteers or otherwise; the number of houses owned by colored people; the number of acres of land owned and tilled, the average value per acre, the amount of tax paid thereon; the value of livestock owned; the value of all other stock, shares, and other species of property within the State and the amount of tax paid thereon; also the number of children attending the free schools and the average amount of money drawn by them from the State; also, the value of all untaxed property owned or held by them, such as churches, school-houses, &c.

2. Resolved, That the Recording Secretary shall be chief of a Bureau for that purpose.

3. Resolved, That the State of New Jersey shall be divided into districts, to which agents shall be appointed by the League, as provided in Sec. 3. Art. 4 of the constitution, who shall take the name, &c., of all the colored population as herein before provided, and furnish or report the same to Chief of Bureau.

4. Resolved, That each agent or deputy be commissioned and authorized, to solicit and receive, in whatever manner he may see proper, money or funds for the League, of which he may report to any auxiliary league in his district which may so desire, but which he shall pay over, under oath or affirmation, to the Chief of Bureau, together with all documents and information not otherwise provided for.

5. Resolved, That the Equal Right's League, of the State of N.J. does insist upon the general improvement of colored people in morals, education, industry, wealth and religion.

Respectfully submitted N. H. Turpin, Chairman.

CONSTITUTION OF THE EQUAL RIGHT'S LEAGUE OF THE STATE OF NEW JERSEY

Whereas, The purposes entertained by the callers of this convention, and those who have responded to that call, can be best promoted by a closer union of all interested in the principles of justice, and right sought to be established throughout this State, therefore be it

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Resolved, That we proceed to organize an association to be called the Equal Right's League, of the State of New Jersey, whose object shall be to secure to ALL men all equal political rights and immunities; together with

auxiliaries and subordinate associations in the several counties, cities, towns and villages, throughout the State; and do ordain the following articles of confederation:


ARTICLE I.

Sec. 1. The members of this convention shall be constituted members of the Equal Right's League of the State of New Jersey together with all the others hereinafter provided for.

Sec. 2. Hereafter all such other persons as shall pay the stipulated fee of one dollar and fifty cents ($1.50,) together with representatives of all auxiliary societies, providing, however, that [all] auxiliary societies shall be entitled to one representative for each ten dollars ($10.00) together with an additional representative for each five ($5.00) dollars contributed.

Sec. 3 Any other society may become auxiliary to this body [and] entitled to one representative for each and every twelve ($12.00) contributed.

 

ARTICLE II.


Sec. 1. The officers shall be, a President, two Vice Presidents, one Recording and one Corresponding Secretary, one Treasurer and an Executive Committee, consisting of the President, first Vice President, Recording Secretary and four other persons to be elected annually by the League.

Sec. 2. The President shall preside at all meetings of the League and Executive, see that all decrees are duly executed, and perform such other duties as may be imposed by the League.

Sec. 3. In the absence of the President, the Vice Presidents shall preside in the order of their election.

Sec. 4. The Recording Secretary shall duly record the proceedings of the League and of the Executive, draw all orders on the Treasurer when properly directed, receive all money paid to the League, pay the same to the Treasurer and receive his receipt therefore.

Sec. 5. The Corresponding Secretary shall under the guidance of the League and the Executive, conduct the correspondence of the League, receive from agents of the League or other persons all documents of historical, statistical, or general interest; which he shall carefully arrange, tabulate, and preserve for the use of the League.

Sec. 6. The Treasurer shall keep all moneys collected by the Agents, or contributed by auxiliary societies; he shall report to the

13

League annually, and to the Executive whenever required, the condition of the treasury; he shall pay out monies only upon order of the Executive and when properly signed by the President and Recording Secretary.


ARTICLE III.

Sec. 1. The Executive Committee shall establish an office [in] the City of Trenton, N.J., in which place they shall hold such sessions as they may deem necessary to promote the interests of the League; they shall hire an agent or agents if they see proper, who shall canvass the state, who shall urge upon the people the necessity of taking such steps as are necessary to secure the rights and improvements, for the attainment of which this League is formed, which shall be as its name indicates, "the securing of all equal Political Rights for ALL classes of men." They shall encourage the publication of such documents as may be of advantage to [our] cause, and may at their discretion publish brief appeals, arguments or statements of facts, newspapers, and other documents which may have a tendency to promote the ends of the association. They shall cause orders to be drawn on the Treasurer for the payment of such expenses as may be incurred in the carrying out of the purposes of the association.

Sec. 2. They shall report their proceedings and results annually, and shall recommend such improvements to the League as may be suggested by the official experience.

Sec. 3. They shall have power to fill all vacancies caused by death, resignation or otherwise during the year.


ARTICLE IV.

Sec. 1. The officers shall hold office for one year or until their successors are elected.

Sec. 2. The officers of the League shall receive such compensation as shall be determined by the Executive Committee.

Sec. 3. The District Agents of the Association shall be appointed [by] the League annually, if it see proper, and receive such compensation as the League may determine; and also, providing, that at the regular session no agents are appointed, the Executive shall perform the duty of procuring them.


ARTICLE V.

Sec. 1. The sessions of the Equal right's League shall be held annually on the second Tuesday in September, commencing in 1866, in the City of Trenton, at 10 o'clock A.M., for the election of officers and the transaction of such other business as may be brought before it.

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Sec. 2. At any annual meeting of the League, this constitution may be altered or amended by a vote of a majority of the members enrolled.

 

CONVENTION OF THE COLORED PEOPLE OF NEW JERSEY.


[Extract from the Trenton State Gazette of July 15th, 1865.]


On Thursday the 13th of July, 1865, the people of color of the State met in convention, in the African Church on Perry street, Trenton.

The interior of the Church was still clad in its sable habiliments of memory and mourning for that true friend of all men, "The Martyred President"--Lincoln.1

The convention was composed of both sexes, and its proceedings and deliberations were conducted with strict decorum and much dignity. The male persons only taking part in the business of the convention.

The object of the convention as demonstrated by its proceedings was "to endeavor to secure equal political rights and immunities to all classes of men in the State."

The basis of an organization was effected, to be styled, "The Equal Right's League of the State of New Jersey," embracing in its members the loyal persons of the State, of all conditions and colors.

A constitution was adopted and the following officers elected:

President--Samuel G. Gould, of Trenton.

Vice Presidents--Rev. Theo. Gould, of Burlington; Rev. Robert Penn, of Burlington.

Recording Secretary--Wm. Steward, of Cumberland.

Corresponding Secretary--Rev. R. B. Johns, of Princeton.

Treasurer--Abijah Gould, of Cumberland county.

Executive Committee--The President, 1st Vice President, Recording Secretary, Rev. N. H. Turpin, Salem City; Rev. R. Johns, Princeton; Gideon Lewis, Bordentown, and Rev. Thomas H. Cooper, of Trenton.

The following address was adopted:

 

ADDRESS issued to the People of New Jersey, by "The Equal Right's League of the State of New Jersey"


Whereas, We, the colored people of the State of New Jersey have been for long time deprived of our political rights,

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have thereby labored under many disadvantages, and suffered many wrongs, the influence of which has retarded our progress and elevation; therefore, we most respectfully appeal to the citizens of New Jersey, and the friends of humanity, to restore to us all the rights of Loyal Citizens. We ask it as our right

First, Because we are law abiding, loyal people, and always have been.

Second, Because in the hour of the nation's peril, when called, we rallied to the rescue, and thereby gave our influence, our money and our lives, for the restoration of her government.

Third, We ask it in the name of the Declaration of Independence, which declares all men to be free and equal born, and "endowed with certain unalienable rights, among which are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness," and without the acknowledgment of our political rights, these cannot be enjoyed.

Fourth, We ask it in the name of the God of our holy religion, who declares that he has no respect of persons, and also declares that He "hath made of one blood all nations of men to dwell on the face of the earth, and hath determined the times before appointed, and the bounds of their habitations," (Acts xvii, 26.)

Samuel G. Gould, President.


In the evening the Convention re-assembled.

The following is the programme which was laid down for the future:

1. A census of the colored population of New Jersey.

2. Number of acres of land in the State owned and tilled by them, and for which they pay their taxes; also, the value of said land, and a statement of other taxes paid by them, as well as other property exempt from taxation, such as churches, etc.

3. A statement of the number of soldiers furnished by the colored people of New Jersey to the Government, by volunteering and otherwise.

4. The number of colored children in the free schools, paid for by the State.

5. The intellectual status of the colored people.

It is the intention to petition the Legislature in behalf of these objects.

The members of the League are required to pay $1.50 as an initiation fee on joining.

 

Convention Minutes Item Type Metadata

Convention Type

State

Region

Northeast

Meeting Place Name

Mount Zion A.M.E. Church

Meeting Place Affiliation

A.M.E. Church

Citation

State Convention of Coloured Men of the State of New Jersey (1865 : Trenton, NJ), “Proceedings of the State Convention of Coloured Men of the State of New Jersey, Held in the City of Trenton, N.J., July 13th and 14th, 1865; With a Short Address to the Local People of New Jersey, Together with the Constitution of the Equal Rights League of the State of New Jersey.,” ColoredConventions.org, accessed March 25, 2017, http://coloredconventions.org/items/show/257.