- A Brief Introduction to the Movement
- To Stay or To Go?: The National Emigration Convention of 1854
- The 1853 Manual Labor College Initiative
- Bishop Henry McNeal Turner
- Mobility, Migration, and the 1855 Philadelphia National Convention
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- Black Wealth and the 1843 Convention
- Black Women's Economic Power
- The First National Convention
- The "Conventions" of the Conventions: Political Rituals
- A National Press? The 1847 National Convention and the North Star
- Equality Before the Law: California Black Convention Activism, 1855-65
- Conflict on the Ohio: The 1858 Convention in Cincinnati
- The Post-Bellum Conventions Movement and the Emigration Debate
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David and Eliza Johnson
David and Eliza Johnson, like the Gardiners, advertised heavily in 1828. The Johnsons ran their boarding house before the Gardiners moved to Elizabeth St. In their ads, they specifically point out that they serve oysters to attract patrons. The Johnsons also agreed to sell tickets to Whipper’s Reading Room address at Wesley Church in 1828. Their boarding house might have served as a cheaper alternative since the Johnsons had more residents. It is not only the Colored Conventions delegates who took advantage of this. African American men and women who were overrepresented at the lower socio-economic strata, needed affordable homes. In particular, for women who scraped by as domestic workers, affordable boarding homes were extremely necessary. In the late 1830s, a washer named K. Jackson1 and woman named Catherine Wright2 lived with the Johnsons.
Notes and References:
1. McElroy's Philadelphia City Directory. (Philadelphia: Isaac Ashmead and Co., 1839), archive.org.
2. McElroy's, 1840.