- A Brief Introduction to the Movement
- To Stay or To Go?: The National Emigration Convention of 1854
- The 1853 Manual Labor College Initiative
- Bishop Henry McNeal Turner
- Mobility, Migration, and the 1855 Philadelphia National Convention
- Henry Highland Garnet's "Address"
- What Did They Eat? Where Did They Stay?
- Black Wealth and the 1843 Convention
- Black Women's Economic Power
- The First National Convention
- The "Conventions" of the Conventions: Political Rituals
- A National Press? The 1847 National Convention and the North Star
- Equality Before the Law: California Black Convention Activism, 1855-65
- Conflict on the Ohio: The 1858 Convention in Cincinnati
- The Post-Bellum Conventions Movement and the Emigration Debate
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Amelia Shad ran a boarding house located a block away from where the 1830s Colored Conventions took place. Despite the fact that she shares the name of the famous Shadds, there are no records that suggest she is related to them. Widowed, Amelia Shad indicates in ads that she is the sole proprietor of her boarding house. Erica Armstrong Dunbar writes,“it was difficult for young Black women to obtain work, but it proved almost impossible for elderly women.”1 It was not uncommon for widows to take in lodgers and boarders. In 1837, Charles Perret, a 60-year-old dyer, lived in Shad’s house.2 For aging men like Perret who did not have a stable home, boarding houses were crucial to their survival. Thus Shad and her lodgers mutually benefitted from one another.
1. Erica Armstrong Dunbar. A Fragile Freedom: Society and the Sexes in the Modern World. (New Haven: Yale UP, 2008), 38.
2. M'Elroy's Philadelphia Directory, 1837. (Philadelphia: A. M'Elroy, 1837), 173.