- A Brief Introduction to the Movement
- To Stay or To Go?: The National Emigration Convention of 1854
- The 1853 Manual Labor College Initiative
- Bishop Henry McNeal Turner
- Mobility, Migration, and the 1855 Philadelphia National Convention
- Henry Highland Garnet's "Address"
- What Did They Eat? Where Did They Stay?
- Black Wealth and the 1843 Convention
- Black Women's Economic Power
- The First National Convention
- The "Conventions" of the Conventions: Political Rituals
- A National Press? The 1847 National Convention and the North Star
- Equality Before the Law: California Black Convention Activism, 1855-65
- Conflict on the Ohio: The 1858 Convention in Cincinnati
- The Post-Bellum Conventions Movement and the Emigration Debate
- Conventions by City
- National Conventions
- Women Delegates
- Women in the Conventions
- Convention Hosts by Denomination
- Conventions by Level
- Clusters of Conventions
- Colored Conventions in Canada
- Women in the Conventions | March 8, 2017
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A contemporary reader of both Garnet's "Address" and Walker's Appeal will notice unusual typographic characteristics in both texts. Scholarship on these elements has largely been either dismissive of the role typography plays in the construction of these texts' meanings. Worse yet, some suggest that unusual typography reveals that the author is losing "control" over the text. Peter Hinks insists that the unusual typography of the Appeal does little to change the text's core message. However, Marcy Dinius is one such scholar who has bucked this trend and looked meaningfully at the typography of the Appeal. She also posits that typographic decisions were both intentional on Walker's part and evidence of his mastery, not his failure.
Dinius argues that small capitalization can be thought of as an increase in emphasis over italics, while large capitalization draws even more attention. For example, in the sample page below, Walker creates a snowball effect by typing ARE CREATED in all caps then increasing his font size before finishing the sentence off with multiple exclamation points.
Page image courtesy of archive.org
Interestingly, while Garnet is clearly indebted to Walker for much of the content of his argument, his text is comparatively restrained in its typography. The two graphs below demonstrate that while Garnet was invested in using emphatic punctuation, he does so in a much more tempered manner than Walker, who characteristically employed strings of exclamation marks to emphasize his points.
Hover over each bar to find out its exact numerical value.
Garnet was similarly restrained in his employment of words and phrases in all caps. While Walker peppered capitalization throughout his Appeal (and in various sizes), Walker's use of fully capitalized words and phrases can be quoted here in its entirety:TO SUCH DEGREDATION IT IS SINFUL IN THE EXTREME FOR YOU TO MAKE VOLUNTARY SUBMISSION. NEITHER GOD, NOR ANGELS, OR JUST MEN, COMMAND YOU TO SUFFER FOR A SINGLE MOMENT. THEREFORE IT IS YOUR SOLEMN AND IMPERATIVE DUTY TO USE EVERY MEANS, BOTH MORAL, INTELLECTUAL, AND PHYSICAL THAT PROMISES SUCCESS. FOUR MILLIONS! FREEDOM! RESISTANCE!
Thus there lies an interesting tension between Garnet's use of what Dinius calls "radical typography," which he almost certainly borrowed from Walker, and his measured way of doing so. Regardless, we maintain that emphatic punctuation and capitalization should not be read as inconsequential or evidence of these writers' weakness. Rather, they should be read through a print culture lens as tied to the rhetoric of their message and important to the experience of their readers.