In 1865, a decade after the first California State Convention, Sacramento hosted its third Convention. However, the 1865 Convention took place in a dramatically different post-emancipation context. The Black press would yet again enter into the discussion reported by convention minutes: “The press is also an important element in this matter, and we should support our newspapers, as a fearless, outspoken periodical is greatly needed.” The Convention acknowledged the role of the white press but continued to emphasize the importance of Black leadership: “We have many white friends whose papers speak nobly in our favor; but we can best tell our own story, and advocate our own cause.” At the time two Black-run periodicals were operational. The Pacific Appeal was owned and edited by Peter Anderson and The Elevator, edited by Philip Bell. Both editors were bitter rivals but despite their rivalry had formed a shaky alliance in order to put forward the Black political agenda. Bell’s aggressive “hard-hitting editorials” quickly gained recognition from Black editors across the country. The deeply embedded political discourse in both papers linked them to pressing campaigns and causes and were supplemented by personal relationships with activists.
Despite California’s geographic isolation and small population of Black citizens, political activism against discriminatory racial policy was relatively successful. The periodicals offered a voice to Black political activists that expanded beyond their local meetings, spreading their ideologies across the United States and Canada. The Black press and political activists forged a partnership through mutual reliance and understanding. In the first issue of The Pacific Appeal, Anderson explained that “a weekly paper is needed...one which will be the exponent of our views and principles, our defense against calumny and oppression, and our representative among one of the recognized institutions of civilization.” It was through this close alliance between press and activism that the Black voice was decisively expressed in newsprint.
 "Proceedings of the Colored National Convention Sacramento, 1856 California,” ColoredConventions.org, accessed 18 April 2016.
 Jacob, Francis, “Letter to Peter Anderson, Pacific Appeal,” 11 July 1863, Black Abolitionist Papers.
 "Proceedings of the Colored National Convention, 1865 California,” ColoredConventions.org, accessed 18 April 2016.
 "Proceedings of the Colored National Convention, 1865 California”
 William Snorgrass, “The Black Press in the San Francisco Bay Area, 1856-1900,” California History, 69:4 (Winter, 1981/1982), 311.
 Snorgrass, "Black Press," 307
Written by Lindsay Drapkin, History 213 taught by Sharla Fett, Occidental College, Spring 2016.