- A Brief Introduction to the Movement
- To Stay or To Go?: The National Emigration Convention of 1854
- The 1853 Manual Labor College Initiative
- Bishop Henry McNeal Turner
- Mobility, Migration, and the 1855 Philadelphia National Convention
- Henry Highland Garnet's "Address"
- What Did They Eat? Where Did They Stay?
- Black Wealth and the 1843 Convention
- Black Women's Economic Power
- The First National Convention
- The "Conventions" of the Conventions: Political Rituals
- A National Press? The 1847 National Convention and the North Star
- Equality Before the Law: California Black Convention Activism, 1855-65
- Conflict on the Ohio: The 1858 Convention in Cincinnati
- Conventions by City
- National Conventions
- Women Delegates
- Women in the Conventions
- Convention Hosts by Denomination
- Conventions by Level
- Clusters of Conventions
- Colored Conventions in Canada
- Women in the Conventions | March 8, 2017
- Douglass Day
- About Us
- Contact Us
IntroductionThis exhibit accompanies Kabria Baumgartner's essay, “Gender Politics and the Manual Labor College Initiative at National Colored Conventions in Antebellum America" in the in-progress volume, Colored Conventions in the Nineteenth Century and the Digital Age.
Like the Claflin University students pictured above, individuals enrolled in manual labor colleges learned various skills." [Manual training shop at Claflin University, Orangeburg, S.C.]." Prints and Photographs Online Catalog, Library of Congress. Link.
Discussions about African American education dominated national Colored Conventions in the pre-Civil War era. African American activists believed that basic and advanced schooling would bring about social, political, and racial equality. Yet these schools often only targeted African American men. Subsequently, a manual labor college for African American male youth was proposed at the 1831 National Colored Convention in Philadelphia. Twenty-two years later however, a shift occurred. At the 1853 National Colored Convention in Rochester, a plan was introduced for a manual labor school that served African American men and women. African American leaders pivoted from ignoring African American women’s access to higher education to advocating greater acceptance of women’s activism and co-educational models.
Though the education of women was by no means settled by the 1850s, this shift reflects the ever-evolving nature of gender politics in free Black communities in the antebellum Northeast. While African American men spearheaded Colored Conventions, they were aware of the dominant trends in men’s and women’s higher education and they were almost always in dialogue with African American women intellectuals. The national Colored Convention reports thus reveal three key factors that help to explain the evolution of the manual labor college initiative: the establishment of co-educational and interracial institutions of higher education; the contributions of African American women to these institutions; and the emerging women’s rights movement. Though the manual labor school foundered, it was not because of the question of educating women, but rather the question of resources and the idea of racial self-segregation. Nevertheless the 1853 and 1854 plans were the bellwether of a new phase in African American higher education, one where the quest for Black economic self-sufficiency depended upon both men and women.
Use the right-hand menu bar to navigate exhibit pages. The exhibit includes:
Maps that show cities where convention committee members and call signers resided and their travel routes to conventions.
A survey of news coverage reflecting the debate over the 1853 committee's proposal for a manual labor college and Frederick Douglass's proposal for the American Industrial School.
Biographical entries on people and institutions related to Black educational activism and antebellum manual labor schools. These biographies highlight the centrality of education in antebellum Black activism during a time of systemic segregation, inequality, and outright denial of education in northern and midwestern urban public schools.
Curators: Sharla Fett, History Department, Occidental College and David Kim, English Department, University of Delaware, in consultation with Kabria Baumgartner, Department of History, College of Wooster.
Undergraduate Researchers: History 213, Occidental College, Spring 2016: Gabriel Barrett-Jackson, Emma Cones, Tina Delany, Lindsay Drapkin, Lila Gyory, Sydney Hemmindinger, Rosa Pleasant, Reilly Torres, Victoria Walker, Daniel Waruingi.
Further Acknowledgements: the CCP Exhibits team for creating visualizations, editing, and revising this exhibit: Simone Austin, Samantha de Vera, Kelli Coles, Gwendolyn Meredith and Sarah Patterson.
The Colored Conventions Project proudly partners with national and local teaching partners and student contributors to bring the buried history of nineteenth-century Black political organizing to digital life. See attribution lines at the bottom of exhibit pages to learn more about contributors. Browse the curriculum, Colored Conventions in a Box to get involved in contributing to the CCP's online exhibitions.
Special thanks to Gale®, part of Cengage Learning for granting permission to host digital images of newpapers in their database, 19th Century U.S. Newspaper and to Accessible Archives for permission to host digital images of newspapers in their database African American Newspapers: The 19th Century in this exhibit.